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The propagation of an electron beam, with electron energy ~1.2 MeV, beam current ~8 kA, and an induced plasma current is investigated using a metal drift tube ~0.5 m long filled with argon at atmospheric pressure. The behavior of electron concentration and electron temperature was calculated for several concentrations of the SF6 admixture. The comparison of the results of the experiments and numerical calculations shows that the dropping of plasma current when electronegative gas is added is due to the electron attachment to the SF 6 molecules. The results of the experiment and the calculations provide the evidence of at least three mechanisms responsible for the increase of the REB transport efficiency when electronegative gas is present  相似文献
2.
71Ga magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to characterize the structural evolution of nanocrystalline Ga2O3 samples prepared by sol-gel and ball-milling techniques. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR have also been used to characterize silica and alumina Zener pinning phases. 71Ga NMR parameters are reported for the α- and β-Ga2O3 phases, and more tentatively for the δ-Ga2O3 phase. By simulating the octahedrally coordinated gallium NMR line of β-Ga2O3 using Gaussian distributions in χQ, the extent of disorder in the Ga2O3 crystallites has been quantified. The ball-milled samples contain much more inherent disorder than the sol-gel samples in the nano-phase, which was observed from simulations of the 71Ga MAS NMR spectra. The silica pinning phase produced highly crystalline and densely aggregated nanocrystalline Ga2O3, as well as the smallest nanocrystal sizes. Authors' address: Mark E. Smith, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK  相似文献
3.
High-magnitude magnetic barriers in space and solar plasma are proposed to be attributed to the pile up of magnetic field lines and their Alfvénic collapse for MHD flows. The analysis of experimental data from both the Interball and Cluster spacecrafts shows that high-magnitude magnetic structures found in the Earth magnetosheath and near the magnetopause are supported by a nearly thermal transverse plasma flow, with the minimum barrier width being on the order of the ion gyroradius. The collapse termination at such scales can be explained by the balance between the pile up of magnetic field lines and backward finite-gyroradius diffusion. Comparison between the theoretical, modeling, and experimental data shows that the Alfvénic collapse is, in general, a promising mechanism for magnetic field generation and plasma separation. The text was submitted by the authors in English.  相似文献
4.
The study of the interaction between collisionless plasma flow and stagnant plasma revealed the presence of an outer boundary layer at the border of a geomagnetic trap, where the super-Alfvén subsonic laminar flow changes over to the dynamic regime characterized by the formation of accelerated magnetosonic jets and decelerated Alfvén flows with characteristic relaxation times of 10–20 min. The nonlinear interaction of fluctuations in the initial flow with the waves reflected from an obstacle explains the observed flow chaotization. The Cherenkov resonance of the magnetosonic jet with the fluctuation beats between the boundary layer and the incoming flow is the possible mechanism of its formation. In the flow reference system, the incoming particles are accelerated by the electric fields at the border of boundary layer that arise self-consistently as a result of the preceding wave-particle interactions; the inertial drift of the incoming ions in a transverse electric field increasing toward the border explains quantitatively the observed ion acceleration. The magnetosonic jets may carry away downstream up to a half of the unperturbed flow momentum, and their dynamic pressure is an order of magnitude higher than the magnetic pressure at the obstacle border. The appearance of nonequilibrium jets and the boundary-layer fluctuations are synchronized by the magnetosonic oscillations of the incoming flow at frequencies of 1–2 mHz.  相似文献
5.
A new phenomenon was discovered on the basis of analysis of the Interball project data. A hot plasma flow is thermalized through the formation of “long-operating” vortex streets and local discontinuities and solitons in a distributed region over polar cusps. Plasma percolation through the structured boundary and secondary reconnection of fluctuating magnetic fields in a high-latitude turbulent boundary layer account for the main part of solar wind plasma inflow into the magnetospheric trap. Unlike local shocks, the ion thermalization is accompanied by the generation of coherent Alfvén waves on the scales ranging from ion gyroradius to the radius of curvature of the averaged magnetic field, as well as by the generation of diamagnetic bubbles with a demagnetized heated plasma inside. This “boiling” plasma has a frequency region where the spectrum is different from the Kolmogorov law (with slopes 1.2 and 2.4 instead of 5/3 or 3/2). The fluctuation self-organization in the boundary layer (synchronization of three-wave decays) was observed on certain frequency scales.  相似文献
6.
We report on the effect of elastic intervalley scattering on the energy transport between electrons and phonons in many-valley semiconductors. We derive a general expression for the electron-phonon energy flow rate at the limit where elastic intervalley scattering dominates over diffusion. Electron heating experiments on doped n-type Si samples with electron concentrations (3.5-16.0) x 10(25) m(-3) are performed at sub-Kelvin temperatures. We find a good agreement between the theory and the experiment.  相似文献
7.
Three-dimensional dynamic distributions of oscillations of the magnetic field over wave vectors k have been obtained from the plasma and magnetic measurements on four satellites in the Cluster experiment in a turbulent plasma in the outer Earth’s cusp and near it. The resulting k spectra exhibit strong inhomogeneous anisotropy. The dependences of the energy of magnetic oscillations on the wavenumber have been analyzed for 288 three-dimensional spectra in the wavelength interval covering the magnetohydrodynamic and ion scales. It has been shown that the energy density of magnetic fluctuations per unit volume in the wave vector space that is averaged over the total solid angle decreases in the wavelength interval from ~2000 to ~10 km with an increase in according to a power law with an exponent of α = -5.0 ± 0.3 for any magnitude and character of anisotropy.  相似文献
8.
Nanocrystalline CeO2 samples have been manufactured using sol-gel techniques, containing either 15 % silica or 10 % alumina by weight to restrict growth of the ceria nanocrystals during annealing by Zener pinning. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR have been used to investigate the structure of these pinning phases over a range of annealing temperatures up to 1000 °C, and their effect on the CeO2 morphology has been studied using electron microscopy. The silica pinning phase resulted in CeO2 nanocrystals of average diameter 19 nm after annealing at 1000 °C, whereas the alumina pinned nanocrystals grew to 88 nm at the same temperature. The silica pinning phase was found to contain a significant amount of inherent disorder indicated by the presence of lower n Qn species even after annealing at 1000 °C. The alumina phase was less successful at restricting the growth of the ceria nanocrystals, and tended to separate into larger agglomerations of amorphous alumina, which crystallised to a transition alumina phase at higher temperatures.  相似文献
9.
The theory of charged current sheets is compared with plasma data of Prognoz-8, Interball-1, Polar, and Cluster satellites. The possibility of momentum and energy transfer into the magnetosphere, irrespective of magnetic field line reconnection, as a specific dynamo effect, is shown. This relates statistical properties of the turbulent boundary layers with the character of the transfer through thin boundaries.  相似文献
10.
It is proposed to consider the scalings of anomalous transport (superdiffusion), determined experimentally in turbulent plasma of the Earth’s magnetosphere and laboratory plasma of thermonuclear facilities and processed using modern statistical cascade models of strong turbulence with intermittency, also within the approach of physical kinetics to the theory of plasma turbulence.  相似文献
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