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Removing very fine particles in the 0.01-1 micro m range generated in diesel combustion is important for air pollution abatement because of the impact such particles have on the environment. By forming larger particles, acoustic agglomeration of submicron particles is presented as a promising process for enhancing the efficiency of the current filtration systems for particle removal. Nevertheless, some authors have pointed out that acoustic agglomeration is much more efficient for larger particles than for smaller particles. This paper studies the effect of humidity on the acoustic agglomeration of diesel exhausts particles in the nanometer size range at 21 kHz. For the agglomeration tests, the experimental facility basically consists of a pilot scale plant with a diesel engine, an ultrasonic agglomeration chamber a dilution system, a nozzle atomizer, and an aerosol sampling and measuring station. The effect of the ultrasonic treatment, generated by a linear array of four high-power stepped-plate transducers on fumes at flow rates of 900 Nm(3)/h, was a small reduction in the number concentration of particles at the outlet of the chamber. However, the presence of humidity raised the agglomeration rate by decreasing the number particle concentration by up to 56%. A numerical study of the agglomeration process as a linear combination of the orthokinetic and hydrodynamic agglomeration coefficients resulting from mutual radiation pressure also found that acoustic agglomeration was enhanced by humidity. Both results confirm the benefit of using high-power ultrasound together with humidity to enhance the agglomeration of particles much smaller than 1 micro m.  相似文献
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Recent developments in vibrating-plate macrosonic transducers   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
As is known, the stepped-plate transducer [Ultrasonics 16 (6) (1978) 267] represents an optimum system for the efficient generation of high-intensity sonic and ultrasonic radiation in fluid media. Nevertheless, the design of this transducer may be difficult to adapt to some specific problems. Such is the case of the treatment of large volumes in industrial installations. A solution is the enlargement of the surface of the radiating plate. However, that means to work at high-order vibration modes which implies numerous practical problems. Another case is the application of the stepped-plate transducer for the generation at sonic frequencies where the height of the steps of the radiating plate, which has to be half a wavelength of the radiation, becomes too high and it makes the transducer construction impractical. To face these specific situations a series of new designs in transducer development have been recently carried out. This paper presents the characteristics of two new transducer devices, one for the treatment of large industrial volumes and the other for low-frequency sonic applications. Both devices are based on vibrating-plate radiators and represent a novel approach to practical existing problems.  相似文献
3.
The application of high power ultrasound for dehydration of porous materials may be very effective in processes in which heat-sensitive materials such as foodstuffs have to be treated. In fact, high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations are capable of increasing heat and mass transfer processes in materials. The application of ultrasonic energy can be made alone or in combination with other kind of energy such as hot-air. In this case, ultrasound helps in reducing temperature or treatment time. The aim of this work is to study the effect of air flow rate, ultrasonic power and mass loading on hot-air drying assisted by a new power ultrasonic system. The drying chamber is an aluminium vibrating cylinder, which is able to create a high intensity ultrasonic field in the gas medium. To that purpose the chamber is driven at its centre by a power ultrasonic vibrator at 21.8 kHz. Drying kinetics of carrot cubes and lemon peel cylinders were carried out at 40 degrees C for different air velocities, with and without ultrasound. The results show that the effect of ultrasound on drying rate is affected by air flow rate, ultrasonic power and mass loading. In fact, at high air velocities the acoustic field inside the chamber is disturbed and the effect of ultrasound on drying kinetics diminishes.  相似文献
4.
Drying processes, which have a great significance in the food industry, are frequently based on the use of thermal energy. Nevertheless, such methods may produce structural changes in the products. Consequently, a great emphasis is presently given to novel treatments where the quality will be preserved. Such is the case of the application of high-power ultrasound which represents an emergent and promising technology. During the last few years, we have been involved in the development of an ultrasonic dehydration process, based on the application of the ultrasonic vibration in direct contact with the product. Such a process has been the object of a detailed study at laboratory stage on the influence of the different parameters involved. This paper deals with the development and testing of a prototype system for the application and evaluation of the process at a pre-industrial stage. Such prototype is based on a high-power rectangular plate transducer, working at a frequency of 20 kHz, with a power capacity of about 100 W. In order to study mechanical and thermal effects, the system is provided with a series of sensors which permit monitoring the parameters of the process. Specific software has also been developed to facilitate data collection and analysis. The system has been tested with vegetable samples.  相似文献
5.
The most characteristic narrow-band transducer structure for high-power ultrasonic applications is the well known piezoelectric sandwich which is reminiscent of the Langevin transducer. Such structure is generally used jointly with other components in the construction of industrial high-power transducers. One of the main objectives in the design and construction of such high-power transducers is to minimize energy losses. To that purpose the selection of the piezoelectric ceramic rings forming the sandwich requires clear and specific criteria. This paper deals with a numerical and experimental procedure for the accurate selection of the piezoelectric rings constituting high-power transducers, based on the analysis of the mechanical Q, the frequency and the resonance curve. The procedure was experimentally checked by constructing and characterizing several transducer structures.  相似文献
6.
The separation of fine particles from gases or liquids is a topic of permanent industrial attention. The use of ultrasonic energy to assist conventional separation techniques seems to be very promising. The adequate applications of high-intensity ultrasonic fields may contribute to improve the efficiency and capacity of the separation methods presently used. The specific mechanisms to ultrasonically enhance separation processes basically depend on the medium to be treated. In gas suspensions, where very fine particles have to be removed, ultrasonic action involves agglomeration of particles in order to increase their size and, consequently, to improve collection efficiency of conventional filters. In liquid suspensions, agglomeration is, in general, less efficient than in gases. Nevertheless, the ultrasonic energy is useful to dewater fine-particle high-concentration suspensions such as slurries and sludges. This paper deals with the application of acoustic energy to assist fluid/solid separation processes in gas and liquid suspensions and presents some theoretical and experimental results in specific applications.  相似文献
7.
The development of high-power applications of sonic and ultrasonic energy in industrial processing requires a great variety of practical systems with characteristics which are dependent on the effect to be exploited. Nevertheless, the majority of systems are basically constituted of a treatment chamber and one or several transducers coupled to it. Therefore, the feasibility of the application mainly depends on the efficiency of the transducer-chamber system. This paper deals with a macrosonic system which is essentially constituted of a high-power transducer with a double stepped-plate radiator coupled to a chamber of square section. The radiator, which has a rectangular shape, is placed on one face of the chamber in order to drive the inside fluid volume. The stepped profile of the radiator allows a piston-like radiation to be obtained. The radiation from the back face of the radiator is also applied to the chamber by using adequate reflectors. Transducer-chamber systems for sonic and ultrasonic frequencies have been developed with power capacities up to about 5 kW for the treatment of fluid volumes of several cubic meters. The characteristics of these systems are presented in this paper.  相似文献
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