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NMR relaxation time distributions, obtained with laboratory and portable devices, are utilized to characterize the pore-size distributions of building materials coming from the Roman remains of the Greek-Roman Theatre of Taormina. To validate the interpretation of relaxation data in terms of pore-size distribution, comparison of results from standard and in situ NMR experiments with results of the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) has been made. Although the pore-size distributions can be obtained by NMR in terms of either longitudinal (T1) or transverse (T2) relaxation times distributions, the shorter duration of the T2 measurement makes it, in principle, preferable, although the determination of T2 distributions is not necessarily an easy alternative to finding T1 distributions. Among other things, the T1 distribution is almost independent of the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field, while the T2 distribution is strongly influenced by it. This paper was aimed at answering two questions: what are the validity limits to interpret NMR data in terms of pore-size distributions and whether the portable device can successfully be applied as a non-destructive and non-invasive tool for in situ NMR analysis of building materials, particularly those of Cultural Heritage interest.  相似文献
2.
NMR relaxation time distributions of water (1)H obtained by a portable single-sided surface device have been compared with MRI internal images obtained with a laboratory imaging apparatus on the same biocalcarenite (Lecce Stone) samples during capillary water uptake. The aim of this work was to check the ability of NMR methods to quantitatively follow the absorption phenomenon under different wettability conditions of the internal pore surfaces. Stone wettability changes were obtained by capillary absorption of a chloroform solution of Paraloid PB72, a hydrophobic acrylic resin frequently used to protect monuments and buildings, through one face of each sample. Both relaxation and imaging data have been found in good quantitative agreement each other and with masses of water determined by weighing the samples. In particular the Washburn model of water capillary rise applied to the imaging data allowed us to quantify the sorptivity in both treated and untreated samples. Combining relaxation and imaging data, a synergetic improvement of our understanding of the water absorption kinetics at both pore and sample scales is obtained. Since relaxation data have been taken over the course of time without interrupting the absorption process, simply by keeping the portable device on the surface opposite to the absorption, the results show that the single-sided NMR technique is a powerful tool for in situ evaluation of water-repellent treatments frequently used for consolidation and/or protection of stone artifacts.  相似文献
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Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxation of 1H nuclei were studied in vitro on fresh animal femur samples. A large number of data points were taken, starting at 100 micros for T(1) by inversion-recovery, at 200 micros for T(2) by single-echo sequences, and at 600 micros for T(2) by CPMG echo-trains. Quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times were computed, giving wide distributions for all samples. Bulk marrow removed from the medullary cavity showed T(2) distributions from about 20 ms to 600 ms and T(1) distributions from about 40 ms to 2 s. The 1H nuclei in trabecular bone samples, where marrow is confined, may show long tails for T(2) at relaxation times down to 250 micros, the origin of which is still not known. These tails are absent in bulk marrow from the medullary cavity. The differences observed in T(1) distributions among trabecular bone samples are in accordance with the different marrow compositions. Discrete exponential fits were computed also, and in most cases four discrete exponential components were required to fit the experimental data adequately. However, the discrete components do not seem to correspond to any physically distinguishable separate compartments.  相似文献
4.
The basic method of UPEN (uniform penalty inversion of multiexponential decay data) is given in an earlier publication (Borgia et al., J. Magn. Reson. 132, 65-77 (1998)), which also discusses the effects of noise, constraints, and smoothing on the resolution or apparent resolution of features of a computed distribution of relaxation times. UPEN applies negative feedback to a regularization penalty, allowing stronger smoothing for a broad feature than for a sharp line. This avoids unnecessarily broadening the sharp line and/or breaking the wide peak or tail into several peaks that the relaxation data do not demand to be separate. The experimental and artificial data presented earlier were T(1) data, and all had fixed data spacings, uniform in log-time. However, for T(2) data, usually spaced uniformly in linear time, or for data spaced in any manner, we have found that the data spacing does not enter explicitly into the computation. The present work shows the extension of UPEN to T(2) data, including the averaging of data in windows and the use of the corresponding weighting factors in the computation. Measures are implemented to control portions of computed distributions extending beyond the data range. The input smoothing parameters in UPEN are normally fixed, rather than data dependent. A major problem arises, especially at high signal-to-noise ratios, when UPEN is applied to data sets with systematic errors due to instrumental nonidealities or adjustment problems. For instance, a relaxation curve for a wide line can be narrowed by an artificial downward bending of the relaxation curve. Diagnostic parameters are generated to help identify data problems, and the diagnostics are applied in several examples, with particular attention to the meaningful resolution of two closely spaced peaks in a distribution of relaxation times. Where feasible, processing with UPEN in nearly real time should help identify data problems while further instrument adjustments can still be made. The need for the nonnegative constraint is greatly reduced in UPEN, and preliminary processing without this constraint helps identify data sets for which application of the nonnegative constraint is too expensive in terms of error of fit for the data set to represent sums of decaying positive exponentials plus random noise.  相似文献
5.
A better knowledge of the NMR relaxation behavior of bone tissue can improve the definition of imaging protocols to detect bone diseases like osteoporosis. The six rat lumbar vertebrae, from L1 to L6, were analyzed by means of both transverse (T(2)) and longitudinal (T(1)) relaxation of (1)H nuclei at 20 MHz and 30 degrees C. Distributions of relaxation times, computed using the multiexponential inversion software uniform penalty inversion, extend over decades for both T(2) and T(1) relaxation. In all samples, the free induction decay (FID) from an inversion-recovery (IR) T(1) measurement shows an approximately Gaussian (solid-like) component, exp[-1/2(t/T(GC))2], with T(GC) approximately 12 micros (GC for Gaussian component) and a liquid-like component (LLC) with initially simple-exponential decay. Averaging and smoothing procedures are adopted to obtain the ratio alpha between GC and LLC signals and to get separate T(1) distributions for GC and LLC. Distributions of T(1) for LLC show peaks centered at 300-500 ms and shoulders going down to 10 ms, whereas distributions of T(1) for GC are single broad peaks centered at roughly 100 ms. The T(2) distributions by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill at 600 micros echo spacing are very broad and extend from 1 ms to hundreds of ms. This long echo spacing does not allow one to see a peak in the region of hundreds of micros, which is better seen by single spin-echo T(2) measurements. Results of the relaxation analysis were then compared with densitometric data. From the study, a clear picture of the intratrabecular and intertrabecular (1)H signals emerges. In particular, the GC is presumed to be due to (1)H in collagen, LLC due to all the fluids in the bone including water and fat, and the very short T(2) peak due to the intratrabecular water. Overall, indications of some trends in composition and in pore-space distributions going from L1 to L6 appeared. Published results on rat vertebrae obtained by fitting the curves by discrete two-component models for both T(2) and T(1) are consistent with our results and can be better interpreted in light of the shown distributions of relaxation times.  相似文献
6.
Quantitative Relaxation Tomography in porous media furnishes maps of internal sections where each pixel represents T1 or T2 of water 1H in the corresponding voxel, so that quantitative information on the pore space structure can be obtained. The porosity can be determined at different length scales by correcting pixel by pixel the signal intensity for T2 decay. Moreover, on the basis of the distribution of T1, the microporosity fraction can be computed, as well as several voxel-average porosities. Since T1 and T2 encode different pieces of information, fusion image techniques can improve the characterization of the pore space, showing simultaneously, on the same image, maps of the two parameters. Examples are given of application to a water-saturated travertine core and to a pig femur. Different kinds of look-up tables were tried by varying two of the three dimensions of the HSV color space in such a way as to optimize both the T1 and T2 contrasts simultaneously.  相似文献
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