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This paper proposes a single sample path-based sensitivity estimation method for discrete event systems. The method employs two major techniques: uniformization and importance sampling. By uniformization, steady-state performance measures can be estimated via the transition matrix of the embedded Markov chain in the uniformized process. The sensitivity of a transition matrix is obtained by applying importance sampling to an ensemble average of sample paths. The algorithm developed for this method is easy to be implemented; the method applies to more systems than infinitesimal perturbation analysis.  相似文献
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This paper is a survey of recent results on continuous-time Markov decision processes (MDPs) withunbounded transition rates, and reward rates that may beunbounded from above and from below. These results pertain to discounted and average reward optimality criteria, which are the most commonly used criteria, and also to more selective concepts, such as bias optimality and sensitive discount criteria. For concreteness, we consider only MDPs with a countable state space, but we indicate how the results can be extended to more general MDPs or to Markov games. Research partially supported by grants NSFC, DRFP and NCET. Research partially supported by CONACyT (Mexico) Grant 45693-F.  相似文献
3.
Priority queueing models have been commonly used in telecommunication systems. The development of analytically tractable models to determine their performance is vitally important. The discrete time batch Markovian arrival process (DBMAP) has been widely used to model the source behavior of data traffic, while phase-type (PH) distribution has been extensively applied to model the service time. This paper focuses on the computation of the DBMAP/PH/1 queueing system with priorities, in which the arrival process is considered to be a DBMAP with two priority levels and the service time obeys a discrete PH distribution. Such a queueing model has potential in performance evaluation of computer networks such as video transmission over wireless networks and priority scheduling in ATM or TDMA networks. Based on matrix-analytic methods, we develop computation algorithms for obtaining the stationary distribution of the system numbers and further deriving the key performance indices of the DBMAP/PH/1 priority queue. AMS subject classifications: 60K25 · 90B22 · 68M20 The work was supported in part by grants from RGC under the contracts HKUST6104/04E, HKUST6275/04E and HKUST6165/05E, a grant from NSFC/RGC under the contract N_HKUST605/02, a grant from NSF China under the contract 60429202.  相似文献
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The paper develops a new method of calculating and estimating the sensitivities of a class of performance measures with respect to a parameter of the service or interarrival time distributions in queueing networks. The distribution functions may be of a general form. The study is based on perturbation analysis of queueing networks. A new concept, the realization factor of a perturbation, is introduced for the network studied. The properties of realization factors are discussed, and a set of linear differential equations specifying the realization factors are derived. The sensitivity of the steady-state performance with respect to a parameter can be expressed in a simple form using realization factors. Based on this, the sensitivity can be estimated by applying a perturbation analysis algorithm to a sample path of the system. We show that the derivative of the performance measure with respect to a parameter based on a single sample path converges with probability one to the derivative of the steady-state performance as the length of the sample path goes to infinity. The results provide a new analytical method of calculating performance sensitivities and justifies the application of perturbation analysis algorithms to non-Markovian queueing networks.  相似文献
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