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Most work in game theory assumes that players are perfect reasoners and have common knowledge of all significant aspects of the game. In earlier work (Halpern and Rêgo 2006, arxiv.org/abs/0704.2014), we proposed a framework for representing and analyzing games with possibly unaware players, and suggested a generalization of Nash equilibrium appropriate for games with unaware players that we called generalized Nash equilibrium. Here, we use this framework to analyze other solution concepts that have been considered in the game-theory literature, with a focus on sequential equilibrium.  相似文献
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A traditional assumption in game theory is that players are opaque to one another—if a player changes strategies, then this change in strategies does not affect the choice of other players’ strategies. In many situations this is an unrealistic assumption. We develop a framework for reasoning about games where the players may be translucent to one another; in particular, a player may believe that if she were to change strategies, then the other player would also change strategies. Translucent players may achieve significantly more efficient outcomes than opaque ones. Our main result is a characterization of strategies consistent with appropriate analogues of common belief of rationality. Common Counterfactual Belief of Rationality (CCBR) holds if (1) everyone is rational, (2) everyone counterfactually believes that everyone else is rational (i.e., all players i believe that everyone else would still be rational even if i were to switch strategies), (3) everyone counterfactually believes that everyone else is rational, and counterfactually believes that everyone else is rational, and so on. CCBR characterizes the set of strategies surviving iterated removal of minimax-dominated strategies, where a strategy \(\sigma \) for player i is minimax dominated by \(\sigma '\) if the worst-case payoff for i using \(\sigma '\) is better than the best possible payoff using \(\sigma \).  相似文献
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Characterizations of Nash equilibrium, correlated equilibrium, and rationalizability in terms of common knowledge of rationality are well known. Analogous characterizations of sequential equilibrium, (trembling hand) perfect equilibrium, and quasi-perfect equilibrium in n-player games are obtained here, using earlier results of Halpern characterizing these solution concepts using non-Archimedean fields.  相似文献
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New characterizations of sequential equilibrium, perfect equilibrium, and proper equilibrium are provided that use nonstandard probability. It is shown that there exists a belief system μ such that is a sequential equilibrium in an extensive game with perfect recall iff there exist an infinitesimal and a completely mixed behavioral strategy profile σ′ (so that assigns positive, although possibly infinitesimal, probability to all actions at every information set) that differs only infinitesimally from such that at each information set I for player i, σ i is an -best response to conditional on having reached I. Note that the characterization of sequential equilibrium does not involve belief systems. There is a similar characterization of perfect equilibrium; the only difference is that σ i must be a best response to conditional on having reached I. Yet another variant is used to characterize proper equilibrium. This work was supported in part by NSF under grants CTC-0208535, ITR-0325453, and IIS-0534064, and by AFOSR under grant FA9550-05-1-0055.  相似文献
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Samet introduced a notion of hypothetical knowledge and showed how it could be used to capture the type of counterfactual reasoning necessary to force the backwards induction solution in a game of perfect information. He argued that while hypothetical knowledge and the extended information structures used to model it bear some resemblance to the way philosophers have used conditional logic to model counterfactuals, hypothetical knowledge cannot be reduced to conditional logic together with epistemic logic. Here it is shown that in fact hypothetical knowledge can be captured using the standard counterfactual operator “>” and the knowledge operator “K”, provided that some assumptions are made regarding the interaction between the two. It is argued, however, that these assumptions are unreasonable in general, as are the axioms that follow from them. Some implications for game theory are discussed.  相似文献
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One approach to representing knowledge or belief of agents, used by economists and computer scientists, involves an infinite hierarchy of beliefs. Such a hierarchy consists of an agent's beliefs about the state of the world, his beliefs about other agents' beliefs about the world, his beliefs about other agents' beliefs about other agents' beliefs about the world, and so on. (Economists have typically modeled belief in terms of a probability distribution on the uncertainty space. In contrast, computer scientists have modeled belief in terms of a set of worlds, intuitively, the ones the agent considers possible.) We consider the question of when a countably infinite hierarchy completely describes the uncertainty of the agents. We provide various necessary and sufficient conditions for this property. It turns out that the probability-based approach can be viewed as satisfying one of these conditions, which explains why a countable hierarchy suffices in this case. These conditions also show that whether a countable hierarchy suffices may depend on the “richness” of the states in the underlying state space. We also consider the question of whether a countable hierarchy suffices for “interesting” sets of events, and show that the answer depends on the definition of “interesting”.  相似文献
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