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Green product development has become a key strategic consideration for many companies due to regulatory requirements and the public awareness of environmental protection. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a popular tool to measure the environmental impact of new product development. Nevertheless, it is often difficult to conduct a traditional LCA at the design phase due to uncertain and/or unknown data. This research adopts the concept of LCA and introduces a comprehensive method that integrates Fuzzy Extent Analysis and Fuzzy TOPSIS for the assessment of environmental performance with respect to different product designs. Methodologically, it exhibits the superiority of the hierarchical structure and the easiness of TOPSIS implementation whilst capturing the vagueness of uncertainty. A case study concerning a consumer electronic product was presented, and data collected through a questionnaire survey were used for the design evaluation. The approach presented in this research is expected to help companies decrease development lead time by screening out poor design options.  相似文献
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A popular assumption in the current literature on remanufacturing is that the whole new product is produced by an integrated manufacturer, which is inconsistent with most industries. In this paper, we model a decentralised closed-loop supply chain consisting of a key component supplier and a non-integrated manufacturer, and demonstrate that the interaction between these players significantly impacts the economic and environmental implications of remanufacturing. In our model, the non-integrated manufacturer can purchase new components from the supplier to produce new products, and remanufacture used components to produce remanufactured products. Thus, the non-integrated manufacturer is not only a buyer but also a rival to the supplier. In a steady state period, we analyse the performances of an integrated manufacturer and the decentralised supply chain. We find that, although the integrated manufacturer always benefits from remanufacturing, the remanufacturing opportunity may constitute a lose–lose situation to the supplier and the non-integrated manufacturer, making their profits be lower than in an identical supply chain without remanufacturing. In addition, the non-integrated manufacturer may be worse off with a lower remanufacturing cost or a larger return rate of used products due to the interaction with the supplier. We further demonstrate that the government-subsidised remanufacturing in the non-integrated (integrated) manufacturer is detrimental (beneficial) to the environment.  相似文献
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