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The use of renormalization for calculating effective permeability   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
There is a need in the numerical simulation of reservoir performance to use average permeability values for the grid blocks. The permeability distributions to be averaged over are based on samples taken from cores and from logs using correlations between permeabilities and porosities and from other sources. It is necessary to use a suitable effective value determined from this sample. The effective value is a single value for an equivalent homogeneous block. Conventionally, this effective value has been determined from a simple estimate such as the geometric mean or a detailed numerical solution of the single phase flow equation.If the permeability fluctuations are small then perturbation theory or effective medium theory (EMT) give reliable estimates of the effective permeability. However, for systems with a more severe permeability variation or for those with a finite fraction of nonreservoir rock all the simple estimates are invalid as well as EMT and perturbation theory.This paper describes a real-space renormalization technique which leads to better estimates than the simpler methods and is able to resolve details on a much finer scale than conventional numerical solution. Conventional simulation here refers to finite difference (or element) techniques for solving the single phase pressure equation. This requires the pressure and permeability at every grid point to be stored. Hence, these methods are limited in their resolution by the amount of data that can be stored in core. Although virtual memory techniques may be used they increase computer time. The renormalization method involves averaging over small regions of the reservoir first to form a new averaged permeability distribution with a lower variance than the original. This pre-averaging may be repeated until a stable estimate is found. Examples are given to show that this is in excellent agreement with computationally more expensive numerical solution but significantly different from simple estimates such as the geometric mean.  相似文献
2.
Upscaling permeability: Error analysis for renormalization   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
In this paper we briefly discuss the background to the problems of finding effective flow properties when moving from a detailed representation of reservoir geology to a coarse gridded model required for reservoir performance simulation. The basic requirements for the upscaled properties are also discussed. We then consider one technique, renormalization, that in recent years has shown promise as an accurate, yet fast, method. The mathematical background of the renormalization approach is examined. A rigorous formalism is developed that allows an explicit calculation of the error terms to be made. In a very simple case use of the correction terms is shown to produce a dramatic improvement in accuracy of the method.  相似文献
3.
Renormalization calculations of immiscible flow   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Oil reservoir properties can vary over a wide range of length scales. Reservoir simulation of the fluid flow uses numerical grid blocks have typical lengths of hundreds of metres. We need to specify meaningful values to put into reservoir engineering calculations given the large number of heterogeneities that they have to encompass. This process of rescaling data results in the calculation of effective or pseudo rock properties. That is a property for use on the large scale incorporating the many heterogeneities measured on smaller scales.For single phase flow, a variety of techniques have been tried in the past. These range from very simple statistical estimates to detailed numerical simulation. Unfortunately, the simple estimates tend to be inaccurate in real applications and the numerical simulation can be computationally expensive if not impossible for very fine grid representations of the reservoir. Likewise, pseudorelative permeabilities are time consuming to generate and often inaccurate.Real-space renormalization is an alternative technique which has been found to be computationally efficient and accurate when applied to single-phase flow. This approach solves the problem regionally rather than trying to solve the whole problem in one simulation. The effective properties of small regions are first calculated and then placed on a coarse grid. The grid is further coarsened and the process repeated until a single effective property has been calculated. This has enabled calculation of effective permeability of extremely large grids to be performed, up to 540 million grid blocks in one application.This paper extends the renormalization technique to two-phase fluid flow and shows that the method is at least 100 times faster than conventional pseudoization techniques. We compare the results with high resolution numerical simulation and conventional pseudoization methods for three different permeability models. We show that renormalization is as accurate as the conventional methods when used to predict oil recovery from heterogeneous systems.  相似文献
4.
In this paper we discuss the background to the problems of finding effective flow properties when moving from a detailed representation of reservoir geology to a coarse gridded model required for reservoir performance simulation. In so doing we synthesize the pictures of permeability and transmissibility and show how they may be used to capture the effects of the boundary conditions on the upscaling. These same concepts are applied to the renormalization method of calculating permeability, to show its promise as an accurate, yet fast method.  相似文献
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