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The SPATE (stress pattern analysis by thermal emissions) system is currently the standard equipment for thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA). A carefully designed test program that studied the behavior of four independent SPATE systems over an 8-month period is described. The response of each system is compared with the response of the other systems in the study.  相似文献
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Thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is a well established tool for non-destructive full-field experimental stress analysis. In TSA the change in the sum of the principal stresses is derived, usually when a component is subjected to a cyclic load. Therefore the mean stress or any residual stress in a component cannot be obtained from the thermoelastic response. However, modifications to the linear form of the thermoelastic equation that incorporate the mean stress may provide a means of establishing the residual stresses. It has also been shown that the application of plastic strain modifies the thermoelastic constant in some materials, causing a change in thermoelastic response, which may also be related to the residual stress. The changes in response due to plastic strain and mean stress are of the order of a few mK and are significantly less than those expected to be resolved in standard TSA. Recent developments in infra-red detector technology have enabled these small variations in the thermoelastic response to be identified, leading to renewed interest in the use of TSA for residual stress analysis in realistic components. The component studied in this work is an aluminium plate that contains a cold expanded hole, hence providing an opportunity to examine any changes in thermoelastic response caused by the residual stress in the neighbourhood of the hole. The variations in thermoelastic response due to residual stress are shown to be measurable and significant; validation of the residual stress field is provided by laboratory X-ray diffraction. The potential for a TSA based approach for residual stress analysis is revisited, and the feasibility of applying it to components containing realistic residual stress levels is assessed.  相似文献
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A new methodology to characterise the elastic properties of polymeric foam core materials at elevated temperatures is proposed. The focus is to determine reliable values of the tensile and compressive moduli and Poisson’s ratio based on strain data obtained using digital image correlation (DIC). In the paper a detailed coverage of the source of uncertainties in the experimental procedure is provided. The uncertainties include those associated with the load introduction, the measurement and the data processing. The design of the specimens and loading jigs are developed and assessed in terms of the introduction of uniform strain. It is shown that due to the mismatch in stiffness between the jig material and the foam the introduction of a uniform strain through the cross section of the specimens is difficult to obtain. A means for correcting for the non-uniform strain across the specimen cross section is developed. To validate the methodology, tests are firstly conducted at room temperature on Divinycell PVC H100 foam. It is shown that the material is highly anisotropic with a stiffness of 50% less in the plane of the foam sheet compared to the through-thickness direction. It is also shown that because of the compliance of the foam, jig misalignment causes large errors in the measurement, and a means for correcting for this is defined. Tests are then conducted in a temperature controlled chamber at elevated temperatures ranging from 20°C to 90°C. A nonlinear reduction in Young’s modulus is obtained with significant degradation occurring after 70°C. The Poisson’s ratio remains fairly stable at different temperatures. A strong theme in the paper is the accuracy and precision of the DIC data and the factors which introduce scatter in the data, along with the uncertainties that this introduces. Particular attention is paid to the affect of the correlation parameters on the derived strain data.  相似文献
4.
Thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is often regarded as a laboratory based technique due to its requirement for a cyclic load. A modified methodology is proposed in which only a single transient load is used for the TSA measurement. Two methods of imparting the transient load are validated against calculations and the conventional TSA approach. Specimens with different damage severities are tested and it is shown that the modified TSA method has the potential to be applied in the field as a non-destructive evaluation tool.  相似文献
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Thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is used to derive the surface stresses in large sandwich structure panels with honeycomb core and carbon fibre face sheets. The sandwich panels are representative of those used for secondary aircraft structure. The panels were subjected to a pressure load, similar to that experienced in-service, using a custom designed test rig. To achieve the necessary adiabatic conditions for TSA, cyclic loading is regarded as an essential feature. As the panels were full-scale, the maximum loading frequency that could be imparted to the panels by the rig was 1 Hz, which is below the usual range recommended to achieve adiabatic behaviour. To assess the effectiveness of TSA at low frequencies two approaches to calibration are investigated and compared with the stress distribution obtained from independently validated FE models. The thermoelastic response was calibrated into stress data using thermoelastic constants derived experimentally from tensile strips of the sandwich panel face sheet material. It is shown that by using thermoelastic constants obtained from the tensile strips manufactured with the same lay-up as the sandwich panel face sheets, and at the same cyclic load frequency used in the full-scale tests, quantitative stress metrics can be derived from the TSA data. More significantly, a deeper insight into the importance of the thermal characteristics in TSA of laminated materials is provided. It is demonstrated that, for the material used in this work, it is possible to use the global material behaviour to obtain quantitative results when adiabatic conditions do not prevail.  相似文献
7.
The classical thermoelastic equation and the generalized heat conduction equation are developed to deal with a non-adiabatic response in thermoelastic stress analysis. A FE simulation procedure is set up to solve the heat conduction equation over a range of loading frequencies. A small disc (20 mm diameter) loaded under three-point diametric compression is used to examine the effect of in-plane heat conduction. As the disc has regions of zero, moderate and high stress gradients it is an ideal component for this analysis. A regime is developed that provides a basis for an assessment of the nature of the response and allows a minimum loading frequency to be identified so that adiabatic behaviour is obtained. This validity of this approach is demonstrated on steel disc of 20 mm diameter. A special loading device has been designed to obtain the three-point loading and a recently introduced Instron Electropuls test machine is used to achieve the high levels of cyclic loading required for the adiabatic conditions.  相似文献
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The paper focuses on stress analyses of structures subjected to excitation forces operating at resonant frequencies. The structures are analysed experimentally using the Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) technique. Experiments are carried out for fixed-free beams of different dimensions and materials, and also for a steel rectangular plate with clamped edges. These structures are excited by a shaker via a stinger. For materials with low thermal conductivity, the agreement between the theory, numerical results and experimental results is excellent. As the thermal conductivity of the material is increased, the correspondence is not as close. This is because of non-adiabatic behaviour. The implications of these results are discussed in detail in the paper and a means of deriving the severity of heat transfer is provided. Other factors that influence the TSA results from structures under natural loading are also discussed.  相似文献
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