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Three different particle image processing algorithms have been developed for the improvement of PIV velocity measurements characterized by large velocity gradients. The objectives of this study are to point out the limitations of the standard processing methods and to propose a complete algorithm to enhance the measurement accuracy. The heart of the PIV image processing is a direct cross-correlation calculation in order to obtain complete flexibility in the choice of the size and the shape of the interrogation window (IW). An iterative procedure is then applied for the reduction of the size of IW at each measurement location. This procedure allows taking into account the local particle concentration in the image. The results of this first iterative processing, applied to synthetic images, show both a significant improvement of measurement accuracy and an increase of the spatial resolution. Finally, a super-resolution algorithm is developed to further increase the spatial resolution of the measurement by determining the displacement of each particle. The computer time for a complete image processing is optimized by the introduction of original data storage in Binary Space Partitions trees. It is shown that measurement errors for large velocity gradient flows are similar to those obtained in simpler cases with uniform translation displacements. This last result validates the ability of the developed super-resolution algorithm for the aerodynamic characterization of large velocity gradient flows.  相似文献
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Slope is among the most influencing factor affecting the spread of wildfires. A contribution to the understanding of the fluid dynamics of a fire spreading in these terrain conditions is provided in the present paper. Coupled optical diagnostics are used to study the slope effects on the flow induced by a fire at laboratory scale. Optical diagnostics consist of particle image velocimetry, for investigating the 2D (vertical) velocity field of the reacting flow and chemiluminescence imaging, for visualizing the region of spontaneous emission of OH radical occurring during gaseous combustion processes. The coupling of these two techniques allows locating accurately the contour of the reaction zone within the computed velocity field. The series of experiments are performed across a bed of vegetative fuel, under both no-slope and 30° upslope conditions. The increase in the rate of fire spread with increasing slope is attributed to a significant change in fluid dynamics surrounding the flame. For horizontal fire spread, flame fronts exhibit quasi-vertical plume resulting in the buoyancy forces generated by the fire. These buoyancy effects induce an influx of ambient fresh air which is entrained laterally into the fire, equitably from both sides. For upward flame spread, the induced flow is strongly influenced by air entrainment on the burnt side of the fire and fire plume is tilted toward unburned vegetation. A particular attention is paid to the induced air flow ahead of the spreading flame. With increasing the slope angle beyond a threshold, highly dangerous conditions arise because this configuration induces wind blows away from the fire rather than toward it, suggesting the presence of convective heat transfers ahead of the fire front.  相似文献
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