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1.
The original protocol of two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient (IPG-Dalt; Gorg et al., Electrophoresis 1988, 9, 531-546) is updated. Merits and limits of different methods for sample solubilization, sample application (by cup-loading or ingel rehydration) with respect to the pH interval used for IPG-isoelectric focusing are critically discussed. Guidelines for running conditions of analytical and micropreparative IPG-Dalt, using wide IPGs up to pH 12 for overview patterns, or narrow IPGs for zoom-in gels for optimum resolution and detection of minor components, are stated. Results with extended separation distances as well as automated procedures are demonstrated, and a comparison between protein detection by silver staining and fluorescent dyes is given. A brief trouble shooting guide is also included.  相似文献
2.
The rising number of proteome projects leads to new challenges for two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients and different applications of this technique. Not only wide pH gradients such as 4-12 or 3-12 (Görg et al., Electrophoresis 1999, 20, 712-717) which can give an overview of the total protein expressions of cells are in demand but also overlapping narrow immobilized pH gradients are to be used for more specialized and detailed research and micropreparative separations. The advantage of overlapping narrow pH gradients is the gain in higher resolution by stretching the protein pattern in the first dimension. This simplifies computer-aided image analysis and protein identification (e.g., by mass spectrometry). In this study the protein patterns of yeast cells in pH gradients 4-5, 4.5-5.5, 5-6, 5.5-6.7 and 6-9 are presented and compared to the pH 4-7 and 3-10 gradients. This combination allowed us to reveal a total of 2286 yeast protein spots compared to 755 protein spots in the pH 3-10 gradient.  相似文献
3.
Microwave digestion of ancient peat and determination of Pb by voltammetry   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Different acid compositions (HNO3, H2O2, HF and HClO4) and low pressure microwave digestion were applied to the microwave assisted dissolution of ancient peats. The digests were evaluated with respect to the decomposition of the inorganic and organic fraction of peats and to an optimised determination of Pb by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Addition of hydrofluoric acid was necessary to achieve a complete dissolution of the resistant inorganic phase of the peat and to obtain the total Pb concentration. Addition of perchloric acid decreased the concentration of dissolved organic carbon significantly, enabling reliable voltammetric signals for Pb determinations with satisfying peak shape, baseline, sensitivity, and precision. The limit of detection for Pb in peats was 1 ng/mL in the acid digest, equivalent to 0.2 μg/g in solid peat. This allowed the determination of low, pre-industrial concentrations of Pb in peat bogs from various locations (Europe and SE Asia). A chelation column used to isolate the metals from the complex matrix to further improve the detection limits failed to provide good recoveries for the peats and plants. Received: 12 June 1998 / Revised: 24 July 1998 / Accepted: 28 July 1998  相似文献
4.
5.
Different acid compositions (HNO3, H2O2, HF and HClO4) and low pressure microwave digestion were applied to the microwave assisted dissolution of ancient peats. The digests were evaluated with respect to the decomposition of the inorganic and organic fraction of peats and to an optimised determination of Pb by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Addition of hydrofluoric acid was necessary to achieve a complete dissolution of the resistant inorganic phase of the peat and to obtain the total Pb concentration. Addition of perchloric acid decreased the concentration of dissolved organic carbon significantly, enabling reliable voltammetric signals for Pb determinations with satisfying peak shape, baseline, sensitivity, and precision. The limit of detection for Pb in peats was 1 ng/mL in the acid digest, equivalent to 0.2 μg/g in solid peat. This allowed the determination of low, pre-industrial concentrations of Pb in peat bogs from various locations (Europe and SE Asia). A chelation column used to isolate the metals from the complex matrix to further improve the detection limits failed to provide good recoveries for the peats and plants. Received: 12 June 1998 / Revised: 24 July 1998 / Accepted: 28 July 1998  相似文献
6.
We have measured the initial probabilities of dissociative chemisorption of perhydrido and perdeutero cycloalkane isotopomers on the hexagonally close-packed Ru(001) and Ir(111) single-crystalline surfaces for surface temperatures between 250 and 1100 K. Kinetic parameters (activation barrier and preexponential factor) describing the initial, rate-limiting C-H or C-C bond cleavage reactions were quantified for each cycloalkane isotopomer on each surface. Determination of the dominant initial reaction mechanism as either initial C-C or C-H bond cleavage was judged by the presence or absence of a kinetic isotope effect between the activation barriers for each cycloalkane isotopomer pair, and also by comparison with other relevant alkane activation barriers. On the Ir(111) surface, the dissociative chemisorption of cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and cyclohexane occurs via two different reaction pathways: initial C-C bond cleavage dominates on Ir(111) at high temperature (T > approximately 600 K), while at low temperature (T < approximately 400 K), initial C-H bond cleavage dominates. On the Ru(001) surface, dissociative chemisorption of cyclopentane occurs via initial C-C bond cleavage over the entire temperature range studied, whereas dissociative chemisorption of both cyclohexane and cyclooctane occurs via initial C-H bond cleavage. Comparison of the cycloalkane C-C bond activation barriers measured here with those reported previously in the literature qualitatively suggests that the difference in ring-strain energies between the initial state and the transition state for ring-opening C-C bond cleavage effectively lowers or raises the activation barrier for dissociative chemisorption via C-C bond cleavage, depending on whether the transition state is less or more strained than the initial state. Moreover, steric arguments and metal-carbon bond strength arguments have been evoked to explain the observed trend of decreasing C-H bond activation barrier with decreasing cycloalkane ring size.  相似文献
7.
Organolithium compounds play the leading role among the organometallic reagents in synthesis and in industrial processes. Up to date industrial application of methyllithium is limited because it is only soluble in diethyl ether, which amplifies various hazards in large-scale processes. However, most reactions require polar solvents like diethyl ether or THF to disassemble parent organolithium oligomers. If classical bidentate donor solvents like TMEDA (TMEDA= N,N,N',N'tetramethyl-1,2-ethanediamine) or DME (DME=1,2-dimethoxyethane) are added to methyllithium, tetrameric units are linked to form polymeric arrays that suffer from reduced reactivity and/or solubility. In this paper we present two different approaches to tune methyllithium aggregation. In [[(MeLi)4(dem)1,5)infinity] (1; DEM = EtOCH2OEt, diethoxymethane) a polymeric architecture is maintained that forms microporous soluble aggregates as a result of the rigid bite of the methylene-bridged bidentate donor base DEM. Wide channels of 720 pm in diameter in the structure maintain full solubility as they are coated with lipophilic ethyl groups and filled with solvent. In compound 1 the long-range Li3CH3...Li interactions found in solid [[(MeLi)4]infinity] are maintained. A different approach was successful in the disassembly of the tetrameric architecture of [((MeLi)4]infinity]. In the reaction of dilithium triazasulfite both the parent [(MeLi)4] tetramer and the [[Li2[(NtBu)3S]]2] dimer disintegrate and recombine to give an MeLi monomer stabilized in the adduct complex [(thf)3Li3Me-[(NtBu)3S]] (2). One side of the Li3 triangle, often found in organolithium chemistry, is shielded by the tripodal triazasulfite, while the other face is mu3-capped by the methanide anion. This Li3 structural motif is also present in organolithium tetramers and hexamers. All single-crystal structures have been confirmed through solid-state NMR experiments to be the same as in the bulk powder material.  相似文献
8.
W Weiss  W Postel  A G?rg 《Electrophoresis》1992,13(9-10):770-773
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) proteins were sequentially extracted from ground seeds with Tris-HCl buffer, 55% 2-propanol, 55% 2-propanol containing 1% dithiothreitol, and 6 M urea containing 2% Nonidet P-40 and 1% dithiothreitol. The protein composition of these solubility fractions was then analyzed by high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient 4-9 in the first dimension, followed by silver staining and glycoprotein blotting, respectively, for a more detailed characterization of the two-dimensional polypeptide pattern of barley seed proteins.  相似文献
9.
W Weiss  W Postel  A G?rg 《Electrophoresis》1992,13(9-10):787-797
Seeds of two barley cultivars, similar in total protein content and malt extract yield but different in their final attenuation values, were malted. Samples taken at daily intervals during the malting process were extracted sequentially with Tris-HCl buffer, aqueous 2-propanol, aqueous 2-propanol containing 0.5% dithiothreitol, and 4 M urea, containing 0.5% dithiothreitol and 1% Nonidet P-40. The protein composition of these extracts was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and computer densitometry to determine whether differences observed in the rate or extent of protein modification are related to the malting quality character final attenuation. It was found that, common to both cultivars, the albumin and globulin proteins were relatively resistant to proteolysis, whereas the hordeins suffered a dramatic breakdown during malting, with the D hordein being degraded most rapidly, followed by the B and C hordeins. Besides these similarities, differences between both cultivars were observed in the relative rates of D hordein degradation, as this rate was considerably higher in the cultivar with high malting quality. Similar, but much less distinct kinetics were seen with certain B hordeins. Since a possible relationship might exist between the rate of proteolysis of the D hordeins and the character final attenuation, we analyzed a larger number of barley cultivars with different final attenuation values with a simplified technique. For the ten cultivars examined, differences during germination were again seen in the rates of modification of the D hordeins. However, significant correlations between the D hordein breakdown and final attenuation values were not obtained, so that we propose that there exists at best a loose correlation between the relative rate of proteolysis of these proteins and the malting quality character final attenuation.  相似文献
10.
W Weiss  W Postel  A G?rg 《Electrophoresis》1991,12(5):330-337
Isoelectric focusing performed with immobilized pH gradients was found superior to other commonly used electrophoretic methods for discrimination of 55 European winter and spring barley cultivars. Hordeins, the alcohol-soluble proteins, yielded 32 different patterns, allowing identification of 22 cultivars and classification of the remaining ones into ten groups of two to eight cultivars each. Only 21 different hordein patterns were observed using horizontal sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by silver staining. Twelve cultivars exhibited unique hordein patterns, the remaining nine groups contained 2-11 cultivars. Resolution of isoelectric focusing with immobilized pH gradients was further enhanced in some cases when the patterns of urea/dithiothreitol-soluble proteins were used instead of the hordein patterns. However, evaluation was more complicated because of the larger number of protein bands detected.  相似文献
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