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Potassium zinc hexacyanoferate/II/ K2Zn3[Fe/CN/6]2 was prepared and used for the investigation of the uptake of ammonium ion NH 4 + . The obtained equilibrium data indicate higher selectivity of ammonium ion relative to potassium ion and much lower relative to cesium ion.  相似文献
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The kinetics of the non-isothermal decomposition of potassium nickel(II) oxalate in air were studied for non-irradiated and irradiated crystals using thermogravimetric techniques. Analysis of kinetic data were performed using the direct differential method, the integral methods due to Coats-Redfern, Ozawa and a composite integral method. The results of the kinetic analysis of dynamic data and the effects of radiation were discussed and compared with those obtained under isothermal conditions.  相似文献
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The effects of60Co-gamma radiation and of various sample composition on the reduction of hematite to iron in the graphite-iron(III) oxide system in air were studied using isothermal and dynamic TG techniques. Kinetic analysis of isothermal data were performed according to various theoretical models of heterogeneous reactions and the results showed that the three-dimensional phase boundary model gives the best fit of data. Analysis of dynamic TG data were made using Ozawa integral method, Coats-Redfern method and a composite method based on the modified Coats and redfern equation. The activation parameters were calculated and the results of the different methods were compared and discussed.Radiation apparently did not introduce a change in the reaction model or mechanism. However, there is a decrease in activation energy and frequency factor upon irradiation and a decrease in the half-life time of the reaction which is remarkable at the higher temperatures and higher doses.
Zusammenfassung Mittels isothermer und dynamischer TG wurde im Graphit-Eisen(III)oxidsystem in Luft der Einfluß von60Co-Gammastrahlung und von verschiedenen Probenzusammensetzungen auf die Reduktion von Hämatit zu Eisen untersucht. Entsprechend verschiedener theoretischer Modelle heterogener Reaktionen wurde eine kinetische Analyse der isothermen Daten durchgeführt und die Ergebnisse zeigten, daß das dreidimensionale Phasengrenzenmodell die beste Übereinstimmung liefert. Die Analyse der dynamischen TG-Daten wurde mittels der Integralmethode von Ozawa, der Coats-Redfem-Methode und einer zusammengesetzten Methode auf der Grundlage der modifizierten Coats und Redfern Gleichung durchgeführt. Die Aktivierungsparameter wurden berechnet und die Ergebnisse der verschiedenen Methoden miteinander verglichen und diskutiert.Strahlung scheint keine Änderung des Reaktionsmodelles oder des Mechanismus hervorzurufen. Durch Bestrahlung gibt es aber ein Absinken der Aktivierungsenergie und des Frequenzfaktors sowie ein Absinken der Halbwertszeit der Reaktion, was bei höheren Temperaturen und höherer Dosis bemerkenswert groß ist.
  相似文献
4.
60Co-gamma radiolysis of 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine in aqueous-ethanol solutions has shown that the chemical effects are mainly determined by the interaction of radicals from the radiolysis of solvent and controlled by the composition of the solution. The influence of varying solvent composition and radiation dose on the amount of iodoamino acid converted and on the yields of the radiolysis products (I2, I, IO 3 and H2O2) formed in aerated solutions at room termperature were investigated. The formation of I2 is dependent upon the acidity of the solution and is mainly produced as an after-effect due to the interaction of H2O2 with I ions, both being radiolysis products. The variation of radiation-chemical yields with the solute and solvent composition, and the probable mechanisms for formation of the radiolysis products are discussed.  相似文献
5.
Methanol‐to‐olefin (MTO) catalysis is a very active field of research because there is a wide variety of sometimes conflicting mechanistic proposals. An example is the ongoing discussion on the initial C−C bond formation from methanol during the induction period of the MTO process. By employing a combination of solid‐state NMR spectroscopy with UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry on an active H‐SAPO‐34 catalyst, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the formation of surface acetate and methyl acetate, as well as dimethoxymethane during the MTO process. As a consequence, new insights in the formation of the first C−C bond are provided, suggesting a direct mechanism may be operative, at least in the early stages of the MTO reaction.  相似文献
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The formation of hydrocarbon pool (HCP) species during methanol‐to‐olefin (MTO) and ethanol‐to‐olefin (ETO) processes have been studied on individual micron‐sized SAPO‐34 crystals with a combination of in situ UV/Vis, confocal fluorescence, and synchrotron‐based IR microspectroscopic techniques. With in situ UV/Vis microspectroscopy, the intensity changes of the λ=400 nm absorption band, ascribed to polyalkylated benzene (PAB) carbocations, have been monitored and fitted with a first‐order kinetics at low reaction temperatures. The calculated activation energy (Ea) for MTO, approximately 98 kJ mol−1, shows a strong correlation with the theoretical values for the methylation of aromatics. This provides evidence that methylation reactions are the rate‐determining steps for the formation of PAB. In contrast for ETO, the Ea value is approximately 60 kJ mol−1, which is comparable to the Ea values for the condensation of light olefins into aromatics. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that during MTO the formation of the initial HCP species are concentrated in the outer rim of the SAPO‐34 crystal when the reaction temperature is at 600 K or lower, whereas larger HCP species are gradually formed inwards the crystal at higher temperatures. In the case of ETO, the observed egg‐white distribution of HCP at 509 K suggests that the ETO process is kinetically controlled, whereas the square‐shaped HCP distribution at 650 K is indicative of a diffusion‐controlled process. Finally, synchrotron‐based IR microspectroscopy revealed a higher degree of alkylation for aromatics for MTO as compared to ETO, whereas high reaction temperatures favor dealkylation processes for both the MTO and ETO processes.  相似文献
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