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1.
Sonochemical and photochemical oxidation of organic matter   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
Recent developments in sonochemistry have led us to study its use to treat water and wastewater. The effects of ultrasound wave in hydrophilic chemical oxidations are mainly due to hydroxyl radical production during the cavitation-induced water decomposition. Currently, the sonochemical destruction of aromatic compounds in water solution is obtained with low rates. The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of the sonochemical effect in conjunction with a photochemical irradiation. Taking phenol as an example, the combined action of sonochemistry and photochemistry has been considered in a ‘sonuv’ reactor. An important enhancement of the degradation rate of phenol has been observed. It may be the result of three different oxidative processes: direct photochemical action, high frequency sonochemistry and reaction with ozone (produced by UV irradiation of air). The process has been successfully tested to lower the chemical oxygen demand of a municipal wastewater.  相似文献
2.
超声对细胞膜通透性的影响及应用   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23       下载免费PDF全文
适当参数的超声,使细胞膜发生可以修复的损伤,使细胞膜的通透性提高,从而使细胞内的物流释放到细胞外,细胞外的物质进入细胞内,这一现象可以用于释放代谢产物或中间产物,基因转导,强化化学方法治疗肿瘤等方面。  相似文献
3.
The uses of ultrasound in food technology   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
The same physical and mechanical effects which have been utilised in sonochemistry, i.e. strong shear forces, particle fragmentation, increased mass and heat transfer, nucleation of seedling, have been applied to food processing. Examples are quoted from various applications where power ultrasound has been used to influence the development of living cells, improve sterilisation and effect enzyme activity. Typically ultrasound can be used as a processing aid in extraction, crystallisation, freezing, emulsification, filtration and drying.  相似文献
4.
Organic compounds in aqueous solution submitted to an ultrasonic irradiation behave differently according to their physical and chemical properties. In this work, hydrogen peroxide formation and the degradation rate of phenol and carbon tetrachloride have been studied at different frequencies: 20, 200, 500 and 800 kHz. Whatever the frequency, it is easier to decompose CCl4 than phenol by means of ultrasonic wave. It is shown that the rates of reactions involving hydroxyl radicals (hydrogen peroxide formation and phenol degradation) have a maximum value at 200 kHz. The best yield observed at 200 kHz for the phenol degradation may be the result of better HO radicals availability outside of the bubble of cavitation. The degradation rate for carbon tetrachloride which decomposes into the bubble of cavitation increases with frequency. Calculating the reaction rate for one ultrasonic period shows that the efficiency of one ultrasonic cycle decreases as frequency increases.  相似文献
5.
超声在废水处理中的应用   总被引:17,自引:2,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
超声波处理废水是一项新兴的废水处理技术,具有操作简单方便、降解速度快等优点,在处理毒性高、难降解的有机废水应用表现出广阔的前景。  相似文献
6.
功率超声对酶促反应的影响   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
本文评述了功率超声在水溶液和有机中对酶促反应的影响,对固定化酶的影响,同时探讨了功率超声影响酶促反应的可能机理,并并评价功能超声作为一种工业生物化学反应促进手段的可能性。  相似文献
7.
Ultrasonic enhancement of the supercritical extraction from ginger   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
This work examines the concurrent use of power ultrasound during the extraction of pungent compounds from a typical herb (ginger) with supercritical CO2. A power ultrasonic transducer with an operating frequency of 20 kHz is connected to an extraction vessel and the extraction of gingerols from freeze-dried ginger particles (4–8 mm) is monitored. In the presence of ultrasound, we find that both the extraction rate and the yield increase. The higher extraction rate is attributed to disruption of the cell structures and an increase in the accessibility of the solvent to the internal particle structure, which enhances the intra-particle diffusivity. While cavitation would readily account for such enhancement in ambient processes, the absence of phase boundaries should exclude such phenomena above the critical point. Possible alternate mechanisms for the cell structure damage are discussed.  相似文献
8.
超声波对菠萝果蛋白酶活性和光谱的影响   总被引:15,自引:1,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
以菠萝果为材料,用盐析法制备菠萝果蛋白酶粗酶,进一步经SephadexG-50和DEAE-纤维素柱层析纯化,其SDS—PAGE呈单一的电泳带,并获得了菠萝果蛋白酶结晶。一定参数的超声作用可以使酶活力提高,经光谱分析,超声处理后酶的吸收光谱不改变,而荧光发射峰由336nm红移到339nm,紫外差示光谱在一定的波长也呈现出明显的正峰和负峰。本文讨论了超声波影响菠萝果蛋白酶活性的机理。  相似文献
9.
功率超声在生物工程中的应用   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
本文对于不同工作条件下超声在生物过程中的作用、功率超声对活细胞和酶的影响、功率超声在基因工程中的应用等方面,综述了这些领域的研究进展。  相似文献
10.
超声波在食品技术中的应用   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
强超声在媒质中传播时产生力学效应、空化效应和热效应,产匝此增强质量传输和热传递,对介质产生强的切向力。本文对超声波在辅助或强化提取,冷冻、乳化、结晶和干燥等食品的加工技术中应用加以综述。  相似文献
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