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The synthesis of individual virtual auditory space (VAS) is an important and challenging task in virtual reality. One of the key factors for individual VAS is to obtain a set of individual head related transfer functions (HRTFs). A customization method based on back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed to obtain an individual HRTF without complex measurement. The inputs of the neural network are the anthropometric parameters chosen by correlation analysis and the outputs are the characteristic parameters of HRTFs together with the interaural time difference (ITD). Objective simulation experiments and subjective sound localization experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Experiments show that the estimated non-individual HRTF has small mean square error, and has similar perception effect to the corresponding one obtained from the database. Furthermore, the localization accuracy of personalized HRTF is increased compared to the non-individual HRTF.  相似文献
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We propose a novel probabilistic method for quantitative analysis of the sound localization performance. The analysis is based on the two kinds of probability distributions estimated from a single dataset containing listening test results for sound localization. The quantitative parameters of the von Mises probability distributions provide meaningful interpretations on the localization performance. The mean direction represents the listener’s perceptual bias, and the shape parameters and the circular variance provide information on how much the responses are concentrated about the mean direction. The front-back confusion can be determined more systematically by the proposed method than the conventional one, especially for the responses near the boundary of front-back confusion region based on the conventional criterion. The proposed method can be easily extended to analyze the up-down and left-right confusions. To investigate the feasibility of the proposed method, the already published dataset originally obtained by Iida et al. was analyzed using the proposed probabilistic method. The results showed that the proposed method can provide meaningful and reasonable interpretations on the localization performance.  相似文献
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A parametric loudspeaker utilizes nonlinearity of a medium and is known as a super-directive loudspeaker. In this paper, the sound localization in the vertical direction using the upper and lower parametric loudspeakers is confirmed by listening tests and physical measurements. The differences in levels between the upper and lower parametric loudspeakers are varied as a parameter. The direction of sound localization in the vertical plane can be controlled not only when the acoustical axis is set to the right ear but also when it is set to at 5 deg to the right of the right ear. The effect of the level difference between the upper and lower loudspeakers is weaker than the differences observed when using ordinary loudspeakers. We obtained interesting characteristics of the left-right sound localization in the horizontal plane with the upper and lower parametric loudspeakers in the vertical plane. It is found that by setting the parametric loudspeaker at the right ear (that is, the horizontal angle of a listener to it is only 3 deg to the right), the direction of sound localization in the horizontal plane moved approximately 10 deg to the right. Moreover, by setting the parametric loudspeaker 5 deg to the right, the direction of sound localization moves approximately 20 deg to the right. The ILD (Interaural Level Difference) using a dummy head is calculated from the measured left and right sound signals. It is determined that ILDs of the parametric loudspeaker are larger than those of the ordinary loudspeaker. A simple geometrical acoustic model is introduced and analyzed. The analysis helps to explain the measured characteristics.  相似文献
4.
Acoustic guide signals for visually impaired persons sometimes do not include the high frequency components necessary for front–back discrimination in sound localization. However, head movement makes this discrimination possible, even in such cases. This paper clarifies the necessary duration of continuous sound to be able to use head movement effectively in sound localization and whether or not, the effect of head movement appears in sound localization of intermittent sound used in place of continuous one. Head movement is effective for sound localization when the duration of continuous sound exceeds 800 ms, and persists even if the sound is intermittent rather than continuous.  相似文献
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To examine a simulation method for vertical sound localization, and to clarify which peaks and notches in head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) play a role as spectral cues, localization tests in the median plane were carried out using a parametric HRTF model, which is recomposed only of extracted spectral peaks and notches. The results show that the parametric HRTF recomposed using the first and second notches (N1 and N2) and the first peak (P1) provides almost the same localization accuracy as the measured HRTFs. Observations of the spectral peaks and notches indicate that N1 and N2 change remarkably as the source elevation changes, whereas P1 does not depend on the source elevation. In conclusion, N1 and N2 can be regarded as spectral cues, and the hearing system could utilize P1 as the reference information to analyze N1 and N2.  相似文献
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采用声波技术测量落点坐标时,由于多种原因不可避免会产生粗差,严重影响定位结果。针对上述问题,提出了一种粗差探测方法和稳健估计下的声源定位最小二乘算法。该算法按照逐次迭代平差的方法,不断地改变观测值的权,使粗差观测值的权趋于零,从而降低粗差的影响。通过算例对文章算法进行了验证,结果表明:新算法的解算精度明显优于传统最小二乘算法。  相似文献
7.
利用声源定位技术测量弹丸落点坐标时,针对多发炮弹短间隔连续射击试验中,传感器接收信号的时序关系复杂,严重影响声源定位结果准确性的问题,提出了采用模拟退火遗传算法实现短间隔连续多声源目标的精确定位。试验测试了发射间隔为0.15 s的7发炮弹在600 m×600 m区域内的定位情况,结果表明:文章的算法能快速有效的对短间隔连续多声源目标进行定位解算,定位精度小于5 m。  相似文献
8.
林志斌  卢晶  徐柏龄 《应用声学》2008,27(5):374-379
声传播算子是一种高效的时域声场计算方法,它能够很方便地计算出给定系统参数下任意时刻任意位置的声场变化情况,本文采用这种方法计算所得的二维房间声场信息进行传声器阵列的声源定位仿真实验。计算结果表明,用该方法获取的阵列数据能有效地应用于阵列信号处理算法中,准确地估计出初始高斯脉冲声源的方向。声传播算子声场计算方法能为传声器阵列声源定位的实验提供方便,使得传声器阵列声源定位算法在不同混响时间的鲁棒性实验研究变得更加简捷。  相似文献
9.
An experiment was carried out to determine whether sudden loss of vision in one eye would result in a bias in sound localization in the direction of the viewing eye. Fifteen normal-sighted young adults were tested binocularly and with the right or left eye covered. Within each vision condition, sound localization was assessed using three different arrays of six loudspeakers, positioned frontally and on the right and left sides of space, in combination with two stimuli, a one-third octave noise band centred at 4 kHz and broadband noise. These assessed the utilization of mainly the interaural level difference cue and binaural and spectral cues in combination, respectively. One block of 90 speaker identification trials was presented for each of the 18 conditions. For the lateral arrays in combination with the broadband noise stimulus, monocular vision resulted in decreased accuracy on the contralateral side. Errors were in the direction of the viewing eye. While monocularity resulted in performance decrements with the 4-kHz stimulus, the error pattern was not consistent. These results support the hypothesis of visually guided auditory adaptation of binaural and spectral cues in combination in response to sudden deprivation of vision in one eye.  相似文献
10.
An experiment was designed to determine whether normally sighted human subjects would be able to adapt to the handicapping effects of sudden deprivation of visual cues on horizontal plane sound localization. Two groups of sighted normal-hearing young adults participated. One group was allowed the benefit of sight. The other group was blindfolded. Measurements of accuracy and the time to respond were made daily over the course of five consecutive days, in a semi-reverberant sound proof booth that modeled listening in a small office. Sound localization was assessed using an array of eight speakers that surrounded the subject in space. Each day, one block of 120 trials was presented for each of three stimuli, two one-third octave noise bands, centred at 0.5 and 4 kHz, and broadband noise, to assess the utilization of interaural temporal difference cues, interaural level difference cues and binaural and spectral cues in combination. Blindfolded subjects were relatively less accurate than sighted subjects. Both groups showed gains with practice, the blindfolded group to a greater degree, largely due to improvements in the use of spectral cues. The blindfolded group took longer to respond than the sighted group, but showed greater decrements in response time with practice.  相似文献
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