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1.
超声空化的研究方法及进展   总被引:15,自引:5,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
综述了超声空化研究的各种方法及研究进展,总结了空化研究中存在的问题,简要介绍了超声空化在基因导入方面应用的新进展。  相似文献
2.
Sonolysis of chlorobenzene in Fenton-type aqueous systems   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
The influence of ultrasounds (200 kHz frequency) on the decomposition of chlorobenzene (CB) in a water solution (around 100 ppm concentration) containing iron or palladium sulfates was investigated. The intermediates of the sonolysis were identified, thus allowing a deeper insight into the degradation mechanism. It was established that CB degradation starts by pyrolysis inside the cavitation bubbles. The initial sonolysis product is benzene, formed in a reaction occurring outside the cavitation from phenyl radicals and the hydrogen atoms sonolytically generated from the water. Polyphenols as products of the CB sonochemical degradation are reported for the first time. The palladium salt was found to be a useful and sensitive indicator for differentiating the sites and mechanisms of the product formation. An alternative mechanism for the CB sonolysis is advanced, explaining the formation of phenols, polyphenols, chlorophenols and benzene.  相似文献
3.
Formation of noble metal particles by ultrasonic irradiation   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
It was found that sonochemically prepared metal particles such as Ag, Pd, Au, Pt and Rh are of nanometer size with a fairly narrow distribution (e.g., about 5 nm for Pd particles obtained from a 1.0 mM Pd(II) in polyethylene glycol monostearate solution). We have suggested three different reduction pathways under sonication: (i) reduction by H atoms, (ii) reduction by secondary reducing radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from organic additives with OH radicals and H atoms, (iii) reduction by radicals formed from pyrolysis of the additives at the interfacial region between cavitation bubbles and the bulk solution. The reduction of Ag(I) and Pt(II) mainly proceeds through reaction pathway (ii). In the cases of Pd(II) and Au(III), the reductions mainly proceed through reaction pathway (iii). The reduction of Rh(III) was not achieved under the same conditions; however, by the addition of sodium formate, reduction occurred and the preparation of Rh particles succeeded.  相似文献
4.
The degradation of aqueous solutions of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in a three-stage sonochemical reactor operating in the continuous flow mode has been investigated. The experimental reactor may be considered as a series of three high-frequency ultrasonic units. The influence of several parameters such as ultrasonic power, reactor volume and volumetric feed flow rate on the reactor performance is reported. Application of classical basic chemical engineering principles leads to a model that enables us to predict the PCP concentration within the reactor. In steady state, experimental conversion rates are shown to be in good agreement with model predictions.  相似文献
5.
The use of high frequency ultrasound in chemical systems is of major interest to optimize chemical procedures. Characterization of an open air 477 kHz ultrasound reactor shows that, because of the collapse of transient cavitation bubbles and pulsation of stable cavitation bubbles, chemical reactions are enhanced. Numerical modelling is undertaken to determine the spatio-temporal evolution of cavitation bubbles. The calculus of the emergence of cavitation bubbles due to the acoustic driving (by taking into account interactions between the sound field and bubbles' distribution) gives a cartography of bubbles' emergence within the reactor. Computation of their motion induced by the pressure gradients occurring in the reactor show that they migrate to the pressure nodes. Computed bubbles levitation sites gives a cartography of the chemical activity of ultrasound. Modelling of stable cavitation bubbles' motion induced by the motion of the liquid gives some insight on degassing phenomena.  相似文献
6.
An ultrasound-assisted method was used for synthesizing nanosized Pt-graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 photocatalyst. The Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 BET adsorption-desorption measurements, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of a commonly used anionic surfactant, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS), in aqueous solution was carried out using Pt-GO-TiO2 nanoparticles in order to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. For comparison purpose, sonolytic degradation of DBS was carried out. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst degraded DBS at a higher rate than P-25 (TiO2), prepared TiO2 or GO-TiO2 photocatalysts. The mineralization of DBS was enhanced by a factor of 3 using Pt-GO-TiO2 compared to the P-25 (TiO2). In the presence of GO, an enhanced rate of DBS oxidation was observed and, when doped with platinum, mineralization of DBS was further enhanced. The Pt-GO-TiO2 catalyst also showed a considerable amount of degradation of DBS under visible light irradiation. The initial solution pH had an effect on the rate of photocatalytic oxidation of DBS, whereas no such effect of initial pH was observed in the sonochemical or sonophotocatalytic oxidation of DBS. The intermediate products formed during the degradation of DBS were monitored using electrospray mass spectrometry. The ability of GO to serve as a solid support to anchor platinum particles on GO-TiO2 is useful in developing new photocatalysts.  相似文献
7.
Recent advances in organic synthesis utilizing ultrasound   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This review describes the recent applications of ultrasound in organic synthesis. Oxidation processes, N-C and C-C bond formation (encompassing the Wittig, Ullman and acyloin reactions), cycloaddition reactions (including the first example of an ultrasonically promoted Diels-Alder reaction), bond cleavage reactions and biological examples are discussed. The important area of sonochemical switching is reviewed and comments are made on the relationship between ionic and radical sonochemical reactions.  相似文献
8.
Sonochemical reactions of alkyl and aryl thiols in water–organic mixed solvent systems were kinetically investigated. The reaction in the liquid–liquid interface apparently depends on the polarities, surface activities, vapor pressures and hydrophobicities of organic solvents and thiols. Interestingly, the rate jump in sonochemical disappearance of alkyl thiols was observed under emulsified conditions.  相似文献
9.
超声化学法制备纳米WO3掺杂聚苯乙烯及其表征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
 为了满足惯性约束聚变和电磁内爆实验对靶材料的需求,以W(CO)5/sub>为原料,利用超声化学法在线制备纳米WO3/sub>掺杂聚苯乙烯。所得样品用TEM,XPS,FTIR和TG进行了表征。测试结果表明,钨元素主要以WO3/sub>的形态存在,WO3/sub>粒径分布为20~50 nm,WO3/sub>微粒被聚苯乙烯完全包覆,掺杂后聚苯乙烯的热稳定性提高了70 ℃。在此基础上,对超声化学法的反应机理进行了探讨。研究表明:纳米WO3/sub>与聚苯乙烯分子链有一定的化学键结合,纳米WO3/sub>在聚苯乙烯基体中分布均匀。  相似文献
10.
Single crystalline needle-shaped zinc oxide nanorods were synthesized via sonochemical methods using zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide at room temperature. Morphological investigation revealed that the nanoneedles are of hexagonal surfaces along the length. The typical diameter and length vary from 120 to 160 nm and 3 to 5 μm, respectively. Sonication time appears to be a critical parameter for the shape determination. Detailed structural characterization confirmed that the nanorods are single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. A standard peak of zinc oxide was observed at 520 cm−1 from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultra-violet visible and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic results demonstrate that the synthesized material has good optical properties.  相似文献
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