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The degradation of azure B dye (C15H16ClN3S; AB) has been studied by Fenton, sonolysis and sono-electroFenton processes employing ultrasound at 23 kHz and the electrogeneration of H2O2 at the reticulated vitreous carbon electrode. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first-order kinetics in all the degradation processes tested. The rate constant was affected by both the pH of the solution and initial concentration of Fe2+, with the highest degradation obtained at pH between 2.6 and 3. The first-order rate constant decreased in the following order: sono-electroFenton > Fenton > sonolysis. The rate constant for AB degradation by sono-electroFenton is ∼10-fold that of sonolysis and ∼2-fold the one obtained by Fenton under silent conditions. The chemical oxygen demand was abated ∼68% and ∼85% by Fenton and sono-electroFenton respectively, achieving AB concentration removal over 90% with both processes.  相似文献
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Purpose

Sono-Photodynamic therapy (SPDT) is an alternative therapy which claims to enhance the anti-cancer effects by combining sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, we investigated the effects of chlorin e6 (Ce6) mediated SPDT on migration, apoptosis and autophagy in mouse mammary 4T1 cancer cells, and its underlying mechanisms.

Materials

Cell migration was determined by wound healing assay. Apoptosis was analyzed using annexin V-PE/7-ADD staining as well as Hoechst 33342 staining. Changes of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) during autophagy was observed with fluorescence microscope by MDC staining. Immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect the co-localization of LC3 and Lamp2. Western blotting was employed to analyze the activity of the apoptosis related proteins Caspase-3, PARP, Bax and Bcl-2, as well as the autophagy associated processing of LC3-I to LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression.

Results

Ce6 mediated SPDT further enhanced cell migration inhibition, significantly triggered cell apoptosis, nuclear condensation and MMP drop. Cleaved Caspase-3 and PARP increased dramatically after Ce6-SPDT, accompanied by decreased Bcl-2 expression, while the expression of Bax remained stable. Additionally, AVOs formation, co-localization of LC3 and Lamp2 occurred following Ce6-SPDT and simultaneously accompanied by LC3-II processing and increased Beclin-1 expression.

Conclusions

Ce6-SPDT could enhance cell migration inhibition, and induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis as well as autophagy in 4T1 cells.  相似文献
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Droplets of several micrometers in size can be formed in aqueous solution by atomization under ultrasonic irradiation at 2 MHz. This phenomenon, known as atomization, is capable of forming fine droplets for use as a reaction field. This synthetic method is called SARM (sono atomization for reactive mixing). This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel amorphous calcium carbonate formed by SARM. The amorphous calcium carbonate, obtained at a solution concentration of 0.8 mol/dm3, had a specific surface area of 65 m2/g and a composition of CaCO3•0.5H2O as determined using thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Because the ACC had a lower hydrate composition than conventional amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), the ACC synthesized in this paper was very stable at room temperature.  相似文献
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J. Klima 《Ultrasonics》2011,51(2):202-209
An overview of possible mechanisms by which sonication can influence electrochemical processes is given. Four mechanisms are discussed:
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acoustic streaming;
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microstreaming and turbulence due to cavitation;
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formation of microjets in the course of collapse of cavitation bubble;
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shock waves;
and possible effects are illustrated on several examples. The most effective process is formation of microjets, which can not only decrease diffusion layer thickness under 1 μm, but also activate (depassivate) electrode surface. Design of experimental arrangement with maximum participation of microjets is proposed. Two approaches are proposed:
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focusing of ultrasound on the working electrode and reduction of energy losses by over-pressure;
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“tuning” the reactor to obtain resonance, i.e. formation of stationary waves by activating reactor in its resonant mode.
  相似文献
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李蕾蕾  于宗光  肖志强  周昕杰 《物理学报》2011,60(9):98502-098502
阈值退化是器件特性退化最重要的表征.本文以研究SOI SONOS EEPROM器件的前栅和背栅阈值电压在辐照环境下的漂移为入手点,深入研究了在辐照情况下器件的退化;并从物理能带和载流子漂移的角度,分析了导致阈值电压漂移的物理机理,提出了提高器件性能的措施. 关键词: SONOS EEPROM SOI 辐照 能带  相似文献
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房少华  程秀兰  黄晔  顾怀怀 《物理学报》2007,56(11):6634-6641
可通过对氮化硅层掺杂来改变俘获电荷的缺陷种类和数量的方法,改善SONOS非挥发性存储器件的保持性能.建立无定形氮化硅和氧、硫、磷、氟或氯掺杂氮化硅中缺陷的簇模型;根据第一性原理的密度泛函理论(DFT),对缺陷的簇模型结构优化并计算能量,得到缺陷俘获电荷过程的能量变化.发现缺陷俘获电子的能力比俘获空穴的能力好,电子释放过程应对温度敏感,而空穴释放过程主要由隧穿机理控制.预测与氧氮化硅一样,硫或磷掺杂氮化硅代替氮化硅作为SONOS器件的电荷储存层,可改善器件的保持性能.  相似文献
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The method described herein this review compares the efficiency of ultrasound irradiation in sonochemical experiments in organic solvents. This method was shown to be independent of the shape and volume of the reaction vessel.

The principle of this method is based on the fact that the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the entire reaction volume during acoustic cavitation depends on the ultrasound power or intensity of ultrasound field respectively. The concentration of dissolved oxygen is determined by the measurement of the fluorescence intensity with fluorescence probes.  相似文献

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