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The effect of ultrasound on the transport of oxygen across excised frog abdominal skin has been studied. Samples were mounted in an exposure chamber in which the Ringer's solution on one side was saturated with oxygen while the other side of the skin had a low initial oxygen concentration. They were treated with ultrasound at 1, 1.5 and 2 W cm−2 SATA c.w., respectively, and increases in the rate of oxygen transport were observed at all intensities. These increases ranged from 38 ± 4% at 1 W cm−2 to 55 ± 8% at 2 W cm−2. Variation in the pulse lengths from 25 to 200 ms and a constant average intensity did not affect the rate of transport significantly provided that the temporal intensity was constant. Since the peak acoustic pressure within the pulse increased with decreasing pulse length and increasing acoustic pressure increases the probability of cavitation occurring, the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is probably not cavitation.  相似文献
2.
An attempt to explain the phenomenon of anomalous fast oxygen anion transport previously observed in the course of low temperatures topotactic oxidation of perovskite-related nonstoichiometric compounds has been made. According to the model developed the fast oxygen uptake relates to the high concentration of extended defects which exist in these compounds or can arise during oxidation. Experimentally observed specific kinetics has been described as being a result of fast oxygen transport taking place along the extended defects and followed by slow diffusion into undisturbed areas of the lattice.  相似文献
3.
Atomic scale computer simulation has been used to predict activation energies for oxygen migration. In total, 54 compounds with the A2B2O7 pyrochlore structure were simulated. In each case, oxygen migration was assumed to proceed via an oxygen vacancy mechanism with oxygen ions hopping between 48f sites. For some compounds the unoccupied 8a interstitial position played an important role in the migration mechanism. The results were analyzed using a contour map of activation energy versus A cation radius along the ordinate and B cation radius along the abscissa. This identified areas of similar cation radii, which exhibit lower activation energy. Results compare favourably with available experimental data.  相似文献
4.
The effects of humidified atmosphere on oxygen surface exchange and diffusion in La2Mo2O9 have been investigated. After annealing samples in D2O vapour, the depth and line scan profiles of the OD- species showed the incorporation of hydroxyl groups on the surface and of diffusion into the bulk. The hydroxyl diffusion process appears to be different from that of oxygen diffusion, and might indicate the existence of ambipolar diffusion of oxide ions and hydroxyl species in La2Mo2O9.  相似文献
5.
In the present study, the ionic conductivity of the 14 mol%-yttria stabilized zirconia single crystal subjected to the tensile or compressive stress was examined at various temperatures. The conductivity was increased by the tensile stress and the improvement in the conductivity was higher at the lower temperature and also for the specimen with the <100> orientation. On the other hand, the conductivity was decreased by the compressive stress. The change by the compressive stress was higher at the lower temperature, but it was generally smaller than that in the tensile test. The maximum improvement achieved by applying the tensile stress was about 18% at 850 K in the present study. The present experimental results qualitatively agreed with the molecular dynamics simulations on the oxygen diffusion. The oxygen displacement in the fluorite lattice caused by the applied stress could be attributed to the change in the conductivity.  相似文献
6.
Spin-lattice relaxation times (T?s) of small water-soluble spin-labels in the aqueous phase as well as lipid-type spin-labels in membranes increase when the microwave frequency increases from 2 to 35 GHz (Hyde, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 9524-9529). The T?s measured at W-band (94 GHz) for the water-soluble spin-labels CTPO and TEMPONE (Froncisz, et al., J. Magn. Reson. 193 (2008) 297-304) are, however, shorter than when measured at Q-band (35 GHz). In this paper, the decreasing trends at W-band have been confirmed for commonly used lipid-type spin-labels in model membranes. It is concluded that the longest values of T? will generally be found at Q-band, noting that long values are advantageous for measurement of bimolecular collisions with oxygen. The contribution of dissolved molecular oxygen to the relaxation rate was found to be independent of microwave frequency up to 94 GHz for lipid-type spin-labels in membranes. This contribution is expressed in terms of the oxygen transport parameter W=T??1(Air)-T??1(N?), which is a function of both concentration and translational diffusion of oxygen in the local environment of a spin-label. The new capabilities in measurement of the oxygen transport parameter using saturation-recovery (SR) EPR at Q- and W-band have been demonstrated in saturated (DMPC) and unsaturated (POPC) lipid bilayer membranes with the use of stearic acid (n-SASL) and phosphatidylcholine (n-PC) spin-labels, and compared with results obtained earlier at X-band. SR EPR spin-label oximetry at Q- and W-band has the potential to be a powerful tool for studying samples of small volume, ~30 nL. These benefits, together with other factors such as a higher resonator efficiency parameter and a new technique for canceling free induction decay signals, are discussed.  相似文献
7.
采用XRD、DTA、电导和氧渗透测量等手段研究了Fe掺杂SrCoO3?δ钙钛矿的结构-性能关系.结果表明,随着Fe含量由0增加到0.2,材料的相组成逐渐发生六方相→brownmillerite主相+六方相→立方相主相+六方相→纯立方相的变化.随着温度变化,六方相及brownmillerite相与立方相之间发生转变;与此相应,材料的电导率和氧渗透率发生了显著变化.  相似文献
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