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排序方式: 共有562条查询结果,搜索用时 78 毫秒
1.
Epidemic outbreaks in complex heterogeneous networks   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
We present a detailed analytical and numerical study for the spreading of infections with acquired immunity in complex population networks. We show that the large connectivity fluctuations usually found in these networks strengthen considerably the incidence of epidemic outbreaks. Scale-free networks, which are characterized by diverging connectivity fluctuations in the limit of a very large number of nodes, exhibit the lack of an epidemic threshold and always show a finite fraction of infected individuals. This particular weakness, observed also in models without immunity, defines a new epidemiological framework characterized by a highly heterogeneous response of the system to the introduction of infected individuals with different connectivity. The understanding of epidemics in complex networks might deliver new insights in the spread of information and diseases in biological and technological networks that often appear to be characterized by complex heterogeneous architectures. Received 20 September 2001 and Received in final form 4 February 2002  相似文献
2.
非平衡相变的临界标度理论及普适性   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
综述了作者近年来在非平衡相变临界( N P C) 标度理论及普适性研究的进展。主要包括一般 N P C 系统规格化模型,局域序参量的概率分布,广义势的临界渐近形式,空时有关函数及其临界奇异行为。论证了 N P C 系统的临界可标度性,导出了一组普适的 N P C 标度关系,由之计算出的4 种 N P C 普适类的临界指数与目前已知的实验及理论结果吻合得非常好。此外,还讨论了非平衡相变临界标度理论的普适性,将平衡相变临界标度理论作为一种特殊极限情况含于同一理论体系中。  相似文献
3.
Criteria for local equilibrium in a system with transport of heat and mass   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is used to compute the coupled heat and mass transport in a binary isotope mixture of particles interacting with a Lennard-Jones/spline potential. Two different stationary states are studied, one with a fixed internal energy flux and zero mass flux, and the other with a fixed diffusive mass flux and zero temperature gradient. Computations are made for one overall temperature,T=2, and three overall number densities,n=0.1, 0.2, and 0.4. (All numerical values are given in reduced, Lennard-Jones units unless otherwise stated.) Temperature gradients are up to T=0.09 and weight-fraction gradients up to w 1=0.007. The flux-force relationships are found to be linear over the entire range. All four transport coefficients (theL-matrix) are determined and the Onsager reciprocal relationship for the off-diagonal coefficients is verified. Four different criteria are used to analyze the concept of local equilibrium in the nonequilibrium system. The local temperature fluctuation is found to be T0.03T and of the same order as the maximum temperature difference across the control volume, except near the cold boundary. A comparison of the local potential energy, enthalpy, and pressure with the corresponding equilibrium values at the same temperature, density, and composition also verifies that local equilibrium is established, except near the boundaries of the system. The velocity contribution to the BoltzmannH-function agrees with its Maxwellian (equilibrium) value within 1%, except near the boundaries, where the deviation is up to 4%. Our results do not support the Eyring-type transport theory involving jumps across energy barriers; we find that its estimates for the heat and mass fluxes are wrong by at least one order of magnitude.  相似文献
4.
用非平衡电桥法设计和组装电子数字温度计   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
阮亮  高红  常缨  柯伟平 《物理实验》2001,21(10):24-26
巧用惠斯通电桥改装成非平衡电桥,使用碳膜电阻或铂电阻作感温元件,数字电压表作为显示器,组装成电子数字温度计。  相似文献
5.
Finite-size effects in the self-organized critical forest-fire model   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
We study finite-size effects in the self-organized critical forest-fire model by numerically evaluating the tree density and the fire size distribution. The results show that this model does not display the finite-size scaling seen in conventional critical systems. Rather, the system is composed of relatively homogeneous patches of different tree densities, leading to two qualitatively different types of fires: those that span an entire patch and those that do not. As the system size becomes smaller, the system contains less patches, and finally becomes homogeneous, with large density fluctuations in time. Received 24 April 1999 and Received in final form 26 October 1999  相似文献
6.
现代热力学基础简介   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
王季陶 《物理》2000,29(9):524-530
从热力学基本定律的现代表达式 (diS≥ 0 ,diS是体系的熵产生 )能直接预测同时发生的反应有发生反应耦合 [diS1<0 ,diS2 >0和diS1 diS2 ≥ 0 ;diS1和diS2 是反应的熵产生 ]的可能 ,但是长期以来无法得到定量证明 .在激活低压气相生长金刚石的热力学研究中 ,发现该体系就是反应耦合的定量化例证 ,相应地得到了一个非平衡零耗散热力学 [diS1<0 ,diS2 >0和diS1 diS2 =0 ]的全新热力学分支领域 .非平衡定态相图的计算就是该领域的重要结果 ,并与大量的金刚石气相生长实验相符 .非平衡零耗散体系是在外界强制条件下的一种定态体系 ,强制条件减弱为零时就成为平衡体系 .现代热力学对开放体系相关的近代高新科技领域有重要意义 .  相似文献
7.
Laws in Darwinian evolutionary theory   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
8.
交通流问题的有限元分析与模拟(Ⅲ)   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
张鹏  刘儒勋 《计算物理》2003,20(2):130-136
将交通流Zhang H M模型和吴正模型改进为包括车道数变化的情况,指出它们与传统的L-W理论模型方程的联系和区别,并钭Runge-Kutta间断Galerkin有限元方法推广应用到这些模型的数值求解,数值模拟包括红绿灯、车数改变和非平衡状态时的超车行驶等交通流现象。  相似文献
9.
Anomalous scaling in the Zhang model   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
We apply the moment analysis technique to analyze large scale simulations of the Zhang sandpile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the update mechanism used. With the standard parallel updating, the Zhang model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, and it also appears to be incompatible with the more general multifractal scaling form. This makes impossible its affiliation to any one of the known universality classes of sandpile models. With sequential updating, it shows scaling for the size and area distribution. The introduction of stochasticity into the toppling rules of the parallel Zhang model leads to a scaling behavior compatible with the Manna universality class. Received 8 August 2000 and Received in final form 4 October 2000  相似文献
10.
CH薄膜非平衡辐射烧蚀的特性   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
 用一维多群辐射输运流体力学RDMG程序数值模拟研究了在神光-II黑腔辐射源条件下,非平衡辐射烧蚀CH薄膜的过程,给出了与平衡辐射烧蚀不同的烧蚀图像,得到了非平衡辐射烧蚀相关的数值定律。  相似文献
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