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Dendritic nanocrystalline CdS film was deposited at liquid-liquid interface of surfactants and an electrolyte containing 4 mmol L−1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and 16 mmol L−1 thioacetamide (CH3CSNH2) with an initial pH value of 5 at 15 °C by electrochemical synthesis. The nanofilm was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The surface morphology and particle size of the nanofilm were investigated by AFM, SEM and TEM, and the crystalline size was 30-50 nm. The thickness of the nanofilm calculated by optical absorption spectrum was 80 nm. The microstructure and composition of the nanofilm was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), showing its polycrystalline structure consisting of CdS and Cd. Optical properties of the nanofilm were investigated systematically by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. A λonset blue shift compared with bulk CdS was observed in the absorption spectra. Fluorescence spectra of the nanofilm indicated that the CdS nanofilm emitted blue and green light. The nanocomposites film electrode will bring about anodic photocurrent during illumination, showing that the transfer of cavities produces photocurrent.  相似文献
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设计了一种简便的适用于油相密度大于水相 (水上油下 )的液 -液界面全内反射分光光度测定装置。入射光经过棱镜折射和油水界面反射后 ,再经过比色皿底部的玻璃 -空气界面反射回油 -水界面 ,如此反复一定次数后 ,最后经棱镜折射进入检测器。发生全反射的次数可以通过改变油 -水界面的高度来调整 ,以获得适当的灵敏度。利用本装置测定了金胺 O在 CCl4/ H2 O界面的吸收光谱 ,并与在溶液中的情况进行了比较。  相似文献
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Soft chemistry has emerged as an important means of generating nanocrystals, nanowires and other nanostructures of semiconducting materials. We describe the synthesis of CdS and other metal chalcogenide nanocrystals by a solvothermal route. We also describe the synthesis of nanocrystals of AlN, GaN and InN by the reaction of hexamethyldisilazane with the corresponding metal chloride or metal cupferronate under solvothermal conditions. Nanowires of Se and Te have been obtained by a self-seeding solution-based method. A single source precursor based on urea complexes of metal chlorides gives rise to metal nitride nanocrystals, nanowires and nanotubes. The liquidliquid interface provides an excellent medium for preparing single-crystalline films of metal chalcogenides.  相似文献
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We predict the elastic properties of mixed amphiphilic monolayers in the swollen state within the blob model using scaling arguments. First the elastic moduli and the spontaneous curvature of a bimodal brush are determined as a function of the composition and the relative chain length. We obtain simple and useful scaling functions which interpolate between the elastic moduli of a pure short-chain brush and a pure long-chain brush. By using the analogy between block copolymer interfaces and polymeric brushes, the effect of mixing on self-assembled diblock copolymer monolayers is investigated in the swollen state. We calculate various interfacial properties, such as the equilibrium surface coverage, interface curvature, and the mixing free energy as a function of the composition. In general, we find a nonlinear dependence on the composition, which deviates from the simple linear averaging of the properties of pure components. Our results are used to discuss a recent experiment on the effect of amphiphilic block copolymers on the efficiency of microemulsions. Received 29 December 2000 and Received in final form 19 March 2001  相似文献
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陈宇  邓伟  沈建国  黄杰  杨华 《应用声学》2002,21(3):25-28
对折射波束在液-液界面上的现象进行了数值和实验研究,结果表明:当声束从声阻抗大的介质入射到液-液界面上时,折射声束会存在反向位移现象。  相似文献
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Interfacing anisotropic gold nanostructures with graphene can open up new avenues for modifying the light–matter interaction of graphene. A chemical route is explored to synthesize branched gold nanostructures on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers by in situ reduction, assisted by binary surfactant mixtures containing tetraoctylammonium bromide with cetyltrimethy­lammonium bromide, sodium dodecylsulfate, or sodium citrate. The hybrid material self‐assembles at a liquid/liquid interface forming a free‐standing film. Electron microscopy studies reveal the morphology, microstructure, and crystallinity of the hybrids. The gold nanostructures are branched in three dimensions and possess various shapes, such as irregular stars, multipods, and spiky features, interspersed with rGO layers. The hybrids exhibit plasmon modes in the visible and near‐infrared region due to the shape anisotropy. The enhancement effect of the spiky features is also observed in the Raman spectra. The growth mechanism of the branched nanostructures is followed by kinetic studies and indicates that the formation of multiple twinned crystals is the key factor for branching.  相似文献
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李涛  陈科  Jure Dobnikar 《物理学报》2018,67(14):144701-144701
双连续型结构是指同一体系中存在两种连续态,这在刚体中很容易实现,但对于流体却十分困难.要使两种流体同时保持连续态,不仅对它们的相容性、密度、极性等方面要求极高,还需要稳定剂来牢牢稳定住液-液界面.最早的双连续型凝胶是在对高聚物进行研究时发现的,后来英国爱丁堡大学软物质课题组进行了一系列研究,最终在低分子量液体体系中实现了重大突破,制备出本文所要讨论的bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gel(Bijel).这种结构可以被称作“双连续型乳液凝胶”,它兼有乳液(emulsion)和凝胶(gel)的物理性质,独特的双连续结构使它拥有更为广阔的应用空间.本文简短地回顾了Bijel的研发过程,总结近年来的研究进展,指出它在工业应用中受到的限制,并对室温下通过直接搅拌制备Bijel的方法做重点介绍.  相似文献
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We investigate the performance of different force-fields for alkanes, united (TraPPE) and all atom (OPLS-AA) models, and water (SPC/E and TIP4P-2005), in the prediction of the interfacial structure of alkane (n-octane, and n-dodecane)–water interfaces. We report an extensive comparison of the interfacial thermodynamic properties as well as the interfacial structure (translational and orientational). We use the recently introduced intrinsic sampling method, which removes the averaging effect of the interfacial capillary waves and provides a clear view of the interface structure. The alkane interfacial structure is sensitive to the environment, i.e. alkane–vapour or alkane–water interfaces, showing a stronger structure when it is in contact with the water phase. We find that this structure is fairly independent of the level of detail, full or united atom, employed to describe the alkane phase. The water surface properties show a small dependence on the water model. The dipole moment of the SPC/E model shows asymmetric fluctuations, with a tendency to point both towards the alkane and water phases. On the other hand the dipole moment of the TIP4P-2005 model shows a tendency to point towards the water phase only. Analysis of the intrinsic electrostatic field indicates that the surface water potential is confined to an interfacial region of about 8 Å. Overall we find that the intrinsic structure of alkane–water interfaces is a robust interfacial property, which is independent of the details of the force-field employed. Hence, it should provide a good reference to interpret experimental data.  相似文献
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