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1.
催化动力学光度法测定乙醛催化剂中的微量钯   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
基于 p H 5 .5 0的乙酸 -乙酸钠介质中 Pd( )催化次磷酸钠还原结晶紫的褪色反应 ,建立了测定微量钯的催化动力学光度法 ,研究了最佳反应条件和动力学参数。方法的检出限为 4 .7× 1 0 -9g Pd( ) /m L,线性范围为 0— 0 .8μg/2 5 m L,表观摩尔吸光系数为 7.6× 1 0 5L· mol-1· cm-1,用于测定乙醛催化剂中的微量钯 ,取得满意结果  相似文献
2.
采用密度泛函[DFT]和自然键轨道理论[NBO]及高级电子耦合簇[CCSD(T)]和电子密度拓扑分析[AIM]方法, 研究了单重态二卤卡宾CX2(X=F, Cl, Br)与乙醛CH3CHO 中C—C键的插入反应及其环加成的反应机理. 在B3LYP/6-31G(d)水平上优化了各驻点构型, 用频率分析和内禀反应坐标法(IRC)对过渡态进行了验证, 计算了各物种的CCSD(T)/6-31G(d, p)单点能量. 用经Wigner校正的Eyring过渡态理论分别计算了1大气压下主反应通道的热力学与动力学性质, 并对反应通道中构型进行了自然键轨道及电子密度拓扑分析. 结果表明, CF2与CH3CHO反应的主产物是P2F[CH3CF2CHO: 插入CH3CHO中C-C键, 反应I(2)], 而CCl2及CBr2与CH3CHO反应的主产物是P1Cl[Cl2COCHCH3: 成环反应II(1)]及P1Br[Br2COCHCH3: 成环反应III(1)], 1大气压下, 反应I(2)和II(1)及III(1)进行的适宜温度范围分别为400~1300K和400~1000K.  相似文献
3.
Eight far-infrared laser lines have been obtained by optically pumping acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and nine by pumping vinyl fluoride (CH2CHF) with a cw CO2 laser. The far-infrared laser structure used a metal-dielectric waveguide cavity. This is the first reported observation of four of the laser lines in acetaldehyde. In this work, we measure the frequency, optimum pressure of operation, relative intensity, relative polarization, and pump offset from CO2 laser-line center.  相似文献
4.
The current study was carried out with particular emphasis on the association between phonetic function tests and alterations in the appearance of the hypopharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa, such as capillary dilatation, edema, and vocal fold injection after alcohol intake. The results demonstrated the occurrence of previously unrecognized pathophysiological changes associated with synchronous phonetic functions in the vocal pathway after alcohol intake. Serum ethanol and aldehyde concentration levels were evaluated hourly for 2.5 h after ingestion of alcohol. When an electronystagmogram showed the typical pattern of alcohol intake, the study was initiated. Occasionally, rhinography was performed on subjects complaining of a stuffy nose after alcohol intake.  相似文献
5.
通过实验研究了乙醛(CH3CHO)水溶液的荧光特性,测定了室温下乙醛10%水溶液的吸收谱、在λ=355nm处的表观吸收截面σ以及该溶液在不同浓度和不同温度下的荧光谱。实验发现,当激光的激励强度大于1023光子数/cm2s时,乙醛水溶液的相对荧光效率渐趋饱和。  相似文献
6.
乙醛在黄嘌呤氧化酶催化作用下,被空气氧化生成乙酸和过氧化氢,酶反应生成的过氧化氢氧化新吖啶酯试剂[10-甲基-9-(对甲酰苯基)吖啶羧酸酯氟磺酸盐]产生化学发光,化学发光强度与己醛浓度在一定范围内成线性关系.由此建立了一种化学发光分析新体系,用于测定乙醇含量.线性范围2.0×10-7~1.2×10-3mol/L,测定5.0×10-7mol/L乙醛,相对标准偏差为6.8%,检测限为1.2×10-7mol/L,测定环境水样中乙醇含量,取得满意结果,回收率为95~106%.  相似文献
7.
The reaction of acetaldehyde with the Pd(1 1 0) surface has been studied using a molecular beam reactor, TPD and LEED. Below 270 K acetaldehyde sticks to the surface with a high initial probability (∼0.8), but no gas phase products evolve. When the reaction is run at >270 K, hydrogen evolves into the gas phase early in the reaction together with methane in a non-steady-state fashion, but above 300 K there is a very efficient steady-state catalytic reaction at the surface; this reaction is the decarbonylation of acetaldehyde to produce methane and carbon monoxide in the gas phase. This behaviour continues up to about 400 K. However, when acetaldehyde is dosed at 423 K, the reaction rate slowly evolves through a maximum to a very low catalytic rate. Upon carrying out reactor experiments at 473 K and above, the reaction mechanism changes to total dehydrogenation, and CO and H2 are produced at high steady-state rate, not withstanding the fact that carbon is continually being deposited onto the surface. This carbon does not appear to affect the reaction, which takes place on a surface with a c(2 × 2)-C layer present, since the extra carbon is lost from the reaction zone by diffusion into the bulk of the crystal.  相似文献
8.
The classic pyrolytic decomposition of acetaldehyde has been examined to the higher temperatures used in combustion and also lower pressures with 85 laser-schlieren, shock-tube measurements of density gradient covering 40-500 torr and 1550-2400 K. This work is supplemented and modeled with a CASPT2 based variable reaction coordinate RRKM prediction of the dissociation kinetics. These RRKM predictions are then incorporated in good two-dimensional master equation fits of the strong falloff seen in the laser-schlieren experiments, and also that shown in some previous shock-tube results using UV absorption of the acetaldehyde as diagnostic. The laser-schlieren data provide not only unambiguous dissociation rates but also solid indications of the secondary chemistry. Modeling of the full density gradient profiles offers good estimates of rates for H-atom abstraction from both the acetaldehyde and the HCO radical, again at high temperatures.  相似文献
9.
建立了一套高分辨的离子速度影像装置。在这套装置中,离了透镜的设计是利用Simion7.0应用程序对电场中离子的空间分布进行模拟“聚焦”得到的,达到了将离了源空间分布中速度相同而位置不同的离子聚焦在同一点上的效果。利用这套装置研究了CCl3Br在267nm附近的光解反应产物Br(^2P3.2)和Br^*(^2P1.2)的速度和角度的分布,得到了β(Br)=-0.48,β(Br^*)=1.44。  相似文献
10.
We examine the question of reduced Hamiltonians for the torsion-rotation problem and in particular the question of the continuity of frequencies obtained by projecting out a large-amplitude torsional coordinate. We find that suitable results for torsion-rotation analysis can be obtained using either a rectilinear or a curvilinear formalism.  相似文献
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