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1.
从建筑声学到环境声学   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
孙广荣 《应用声学》2002,21(1):46-49,39
本文简述环境声学的发展过程以及在厅堂音质、环境噪声和噪声控制方面的新世纪展望。  相似文献
2.
This paper reports on strategic noise mapping research conducted in Dublin, Ireland. Noise maps are constructed for the day–evening–night-time and night-time periods and levels of population exposure are estimated for the same periods. In methodological terms, the research uses the UK’s calculation of road traffic noise (CRTN) method for calculating noise levels in the study area. This method has been adopted as the interim calculation method by the Irish authorities responsible for meeting the obligations set out in the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END). The research also investigates the usefulness of three noise mitigation measures for ‘acoustical planning’ purposes: traffic reductions, speed reductions and erection of acoustical barriers. The results indicate that levels of population exposure during night-time are extremely high relative to guideline limits set down by the World Health Organisation. In addition, the results highlight the significant role that certain noise mitigation measures can play in good ‘acoustical planning’.  相似文献
3.
Noise map validation by continuous noise monitoring   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper presents a comparison of two noise assessments in the Gdansk agglomeration in Poland. One is based on the noise map produced by computational method for the city in 2007, the second one is based on real data from continuous measurements acquired by a noise monitoring network operating in the city since 2008. Differences are shown and analyzed. Additionally, seasonal and weekday influence on noise indicators (LDEN, LD, LE and LN) is analyzed and discussed in this paper.  相似文献
4.
A new method for cancelling background noise from running speech was used to study voice production during realistic environmental noise exposure. Normal subjects, 12 women and 11 men, read a text in five conditions: quiet, soft continuous noise (75 dBA to 70 dBA), day-care babble (74 dBA), disco (87 dBA), and loud continuous noise (78 dBA to 85 dBA). The noise was presented over loudspeakers and then removed from the recordings in an off-line processing operation. The voice signals were analyzed acoustically with an automatic phonetograph and perceptually by four expert listeners. Subjective data were collected after each vocal loading task. The perceptual parameters press, instability, and roughness increased significantly as an effect of speaking loudly over noise, whereas vocal fry decreased. Having to make oneself heard over noise resulted in higher SPL and F0, as expected, and in higher phonation time. The total reading time was slightly longer in continuous noise than in intermittent noise. The women had 4 dB lower voice SPL overall and increased their phonation time more in noise than did the men. Subjectively, women reported less success making themselves heard and higher effort. The results support the contention that female voices are more vulnerable to vocal loading in background noise.  相似文献
5.
It can be difficult for the voice clinician to observe or measure how a patient uses his voice in a noisy environment. We consider here a novel method for obtaining this information in the laboratory. Worksite noise and filtered white noise were reproduced over high-fidelity loudspeakers. In this noise, 11 subjects read an instructional text of 1.5 to 2 minutes duration, as if addressing a group of people. Using channel estimation techniques, the site noise was suppressed from the recording, and the voice signal alone was recovered. The attainable noise rejection is limited only by the precision of the experimental setup, which includes the need for the subject to remain still so as not to perturb the estimated acoustic channel. This feasibility study, with 7 female and 4 male subjects, showed that small displacements of the speaker's body, even breathing, impose a practical limit on the attainable noise rejection. The noise rejection was typically 30 dB and maximally 40 dB down over the entire voice spectrum. Recordings thus processed were clean enough to permit voice analysis with the long-time average spectrum and the computerized phonetogram. The effects of site noise on voice sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum centroid, phonetogram area, and phonation time were much as expected, but with some interesting differences between females and males.  相似文献
6.
Throughout the day people carry out different activities in different places, and are therefore exposed to a wide range of sound environments. Sound exposure does not occur uniquely in the work situation, but is also caused by non-occupational activities, such as leisure, transportation, shopping, etc.This work shows the results of a study of the sound exposure experienced by a group of 32 people during one week in the Madrid Autonomous Region in Spain. The main aim of the study is to determine the average sound exposure perceived by an inhabitant of the Madrid region; to this end the sample was designed to comprise a cross-section of the population. An analysis was made of the activities that most affect sound exposure, and of the contribution of these activities to the total sound exposure. The results obtained show that in all population groups, sound exposure is greatest on weekends. Leisure activities contribute most to the total sound received, and young adults are subjected to the highest levels of sound exposure. The results obtained in this work may be useful for local authorities in planning environmental strategies.  相似文献
7.
During 1999-2001 the building research establishment (BRE) undertook a measurement based survey of environmental noise levels and a social survey of population attitudes to environmental noise in the UK. The surveys involved a total of 1160 24-h noise measurements at a sample of dwellings in the UK, and over 5500 in-depth interviews with a sample of the UK adult population. Both samples were of a clustered random design, and were representative of the UK population. The results of the surveys have been compared with those from similar surveys undertaken by BRE in 1990/1991 and are currently being used to help formulate a more strategic approach to the control of environmental noise both nationally and in London.  相似文献
8.
The influence of balcony depth and parapet form on the acoustical performance of building facades close to roadways have been investigated. Various depths and two inclinations of parapet have been modeled on an eight floor building. Pyramid ray-tracing simulations and scale model measurements have been carried out. The predicted and measured A-weighted sound pressure level reductions over the balcony back wall and in free field conditions have been compared. The results have been used to derive empirical equations for predicting protection as a function of geometrical parameters. The protection obtained by various parapet depths ranges between 4 and 8 dB(A), while an additional protection of between 0.5 and 4 dB(A) can be obtained by inclining the parapets.  相似文献
9.
This study presents the acoustic performance off tall building facades closed to roadway due to one of balcony configurations, namely ceiling, with an inclined form in terms of traffic noise reduction. Three inclined angles are tested (5,10, and 15°) with different balcony depths by using a Pyramid Tracing model developed by A. Farina. The results in terms of A-weighted sound pressure level reduction are expressed in free field into the balcony back wall. The protection level, defined as the difference in noise levels before and after inserting the proposed balcony form, has been used to assess the reduction offered by that configuration. A maximum reduction due to using these forms is obtained at higher floors and at balcony of 2 m depths and more. As a consequence of simulation results, it is found that the prediction of protection levels from 10th to 15th floor can be calculated from an empirical equation.  相似文献
10.
This study explores the noise reducing effect of a balcony and describes the development of a simple theory pertaining to the propagation of traffic noise from a road into a balcony. A new methodology is proposed that is based on the well-known prediction scheme—“Calculation of Road Traffic Noise” (CRTN)—developed in the UK. A geometrical ray theory is developed for the prediction of noise levels inside a balcony due to road traffic. The source level of road traffic noise is obtained as per the standard CRTN methodology. However, road sub-segmentations and new approaches for the prediction of noise levels at illuminated and shadow zones inside a balcony are proposed. Field measurements have been conducted on four different types of balcony to validate the proposed methodology. The insertion loss, defined as the difference in the noise levels with and without the presence of a balcony, has been used to assess the shielding effectiveness of a balcony against road traffic noise. The simple theory is validated by outdoor field measurements. It is also found that a properly designed balcony can provide considerable screening effects in protecting dwellings against road traffic noise.  相似文献
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