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1.
气体栓塞现象中的接触角迟滞效应   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
以接触角迟滞观点分析了气体栓塞的发生过程及形成条件,并提出几个今后有待进一步研究的问题。  相似文献
2.
气体栓塞演示实验   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
陈昌胜  曾仁端 《物理实验》2002,22(1):44-44,48
利用自制实验装置直观地演示了水在细管中流动,若有气泡存在时产生的气体栓现象。  相似文献
3.
气体栓塞现象的理论分析与实验研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
对气体栓塞现象做了比较深入的理论分析和初步的实验研究。  相似文献
4.
用快速低温冷冻和ESK方法分析兔脂肪栓塞脑组织中自由基   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
徐杰  王江 《波谱学杂志》1995,12(6):635-639
用快速低温冷冻-ESR实验方法研究兔脂肪栓塞模型脑组织自由基的变化,实验发现脂肪栓塞实验组自由基相对浓度是正常对照组的2-3倍。ESR检测到脂类过氧化自由基和以碳为中心的烷基类自由基的事实表明脂肪栓塞病变存在活性氧自由基作用过程。文中对快速冷冻法可行性进行评估。  相似文献
5.

Objective

To evaluate the correlation between findings from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and microvascular density (MVD) measurements in VX2 liver tumors after transarterial embolization ablation (TEA).

Materials and Methods

Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. VX2 tumor cells were implanted in livers by percutaneous puncture under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Two weeks later, all rabbits underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T1 and T2 imaging), DWI, (b = 100, 600, and 1000 s/mm2) and TEA. MRI was performed again1 week after TEA. Liver tissue was then harvested and processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical staining for CD31to determine MVD.

Results

VX2 liver tumors were successfully established in all 18 rabbits. Optimal contrast was achieved with a b value of 600 s/mm2.The maximum pre-operative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)difference value was 0.28 × 10− 3 ± 0.10 × 10− 3 mm2/s, and was significantly different (P < 0.001) from the maximum postoperative ADCdifference value of 0.47 × 10− 3 ± 0.10 × 10− 3 mm2/s. However, the mean ADC value for the entire tumor was not significantly correlated with MVD (r = 0.221, P = 0.379), nor was the ADC value for the regions of viable tumor (r = − 0.044, P = 0.862). However, the maximum postoperative ADCdifference value was positively correlated with MVD(r = 0.606, F = 12.247, P = 0.003).

Conclusion

DWI is effective to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of TEA. The maximum ADCdifference offers a promising new method to noninvasively assess tumor angiogenesis.  相似文献
6.

Purpose

Evaluate feasibility of using time-resolved and high-resolution, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 7 T for characterization of an animal model of pulmonary embolism.

Methods

MRAs were performed in five rabbits using a 7-T MR scanner. Preceding the MR studies, each rabbit underwent a pulmonary artery catheterization with balloon placement. Two doses of gadodiamide were injected: first during a time-resolved MRA, immediately followed by a high-resolution acquisition. Balloon was then deflated, permitting reperfusion for 5 min. A second dose was then injected and another high-resolution MRA acquired. Measurements of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and vessel cross-sections down to fourth-order branches were made, among other parameters.

Results

Occlusion was detected in all rabbits. Despite a TE of 0.58 ms for the time-resolved MRA, regions of nonuniform enhancement attributed to susceptibility effects at the 7-T field were observed in perfused lung. Mean SNR=7.5±3.3 and 134.2±46.5 for the lung and aorta, respectively, and mean CNR=126.7±46.4 for aorta versus lung were obtained. Diameters of vessels in lung that was never occluded were not statistically different from those in reperfused lung.

Conclusion

Results show that time-resolved and high-resolution MRA of the lung are feasible at 7 T and provide high SNR, CNR and resolution, but TEs smaller than 0.58 ms are required to avoid susceptibility artifacts in time-resolved MRAs.  相似文献
7.

Purpose

To investigate progression of cryoinjury in pigs using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as optical spectroscopy and imaging.

Methods

Cryoinjury was produced in 16 pigs in vivo and investigated using Gd-and Mn-enhanced MRI, optical imaging/spectroscopy and histology in acute and chronic setting up to 4 weeks after the injury.

Results

(1) Acute cryoinjury resulted in formation of a lesion with a severely reduced rate of sub-epicardial indocyanine green (intravascular optical flow tracer) passage. In vivo late Gd-enhanced MRI showed a ∼10 mm deep hypointense area that was surrounded by a hyperintense rim while ex vivo Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) detected a homogenous hypointense zone. Histological and spectroscopic examination revealed embolic erythrocytes blockages within the cryolesion with a thin necrotic rim neighboring the normal myocardium. (2) Chronic 4-week cryoinjury was characterized by uniform Gd-enhancement, whereas MEMRI revealed reduced Mn2+enhancement. Histological examination showed replacement of the cryoinjured myocardium by scar tissue.

Conclusions

Acute cryoinjury resulted in formation of a no-reflow core embolized by erythrocytes and surrounded by a rim of necrotic tissue. Upon injury progression, the no-reflow zone shrunk and was completely replaced with scar tissue by 4 weeks after injury.  相似文献
8.
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesised and their in-flow magnetic capture behaviour studied within transparent plastic microcapillary arrays (MicroCapillary Film or MCF). This system represents an in vitro analogue of capillary vasculature and facilitates easy optical observation of capture phenomenon. A dispersion of nanoparticles was delivered at a constant pressure to an array of capillaries sited adjacent to a 0.5 T permanent magnet. The spatial position of trapped nanoparticles relative to the position of the magnet was analysed. The position of nanoparticle capture appears to be dependent on both spatial location and fluid flow rate and suggests two zones in the magnetic field in which nanoparticles are acted upon differently; a ‘steering’ zone and a ‘capture’ zone.  相似文献
9.

Purpose

To determine the feasibility of post-gadolinium three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D-GE) sequence for the evaluation of the pulmonary arterial vasculature in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) and in patients with a variety of other disease processes.

Materials and Methods

Twenty-six consecutive patients (18 females, 8 males; mean age±S.D., 46.6±21.1 years) who underwent chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including post-gadolinium 3D-GE sequence for the evaluation of PE (Group A, n=13) and a variety of other disease processes (Group B, n=13) were included in the study. Post-gadolinium 3D-GE MR sequences were retrospectively, independently and blindly evaluated by two reviewers for the image quality of pulmonary arterial vasculature, and findings of PE and other disease processes. Clinical and imaging follow-up data for all patients were obtained. Interobserver agreement was calculated by kappa statistics.

Results

All central and lobar pulmonary arteries, 71.4–89.6% of segmental arteries and 46.7–52.7% of subsegmental arterial units in both groups were visualized with sufficient diagnostic image quality on post-gadolinium 3D-GE sequences. PE involving lobar and segmental arteries was diagnosed in two patients in each group. Other disease processes including pneumonia, lung nodules, superior vena cava stenosis, lung metastases, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and aortic aneurysm were detected in 10 of 26 patients. There was good to excellent interobserver agreement (0.73 to 1.00) for all findings.

Conclusion

Post-gadolinium 3D-GE sequence may be an alternative technique for the visualization of central, lobar and segmental arteries, and may diagnose PE and other pathologies involving the chest in different patient populations.  相似文献
10.
Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is employed clinically to avoid postoperative liver insufficiency. Animal models are usually used to study PVE in terms of mechanisms and pathophysiological changes. PVE is formerly monitored by conventional absorption contrast imaging (ACI) with iodine contrast agent. However, the side effects induced by iodine can give rise to animal damage and death. In this study, the feasibility of using phase contrast imaging (PCI) to show PVE using homemade CO2 microbubbles in living rats has been investigated. CO2 gas was first formed from the reaction between citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. The CO2 gas was then encapsulated by egg white to fabricate CO2 microbubbles. ACI and PCI of CO2 microbubbles were performed and compared in vitro. An additional increase in contrast was detected in PCI. PCI showed that CO2 microbubbles gradually dissolved over time, and the remaining CO2 microbubbles became larger. By PCI, the CO2 microbubbles were found to have certain stability, suggesting their potential use as embolic agents. CO2 microbubbles were injected into the main portal trunk to perform PVE in living rats. PCI exploited the differences in the refractive index and facilitated clear visualization of the PVE after the injection of CO2 microbubbles. Findings from this study suggest that homemade CO2 microbubbles‐based PCI is a novel modality for preclinical PVE research.  相似文献
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