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The Pt-Ni catalysts supported on CNTs have been prepared by wet impregnation and the selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) to the corresponding hydrocinnamaldehyde (HCMA) over the catalysts has been studied in ethanol at different reaction conditions. The results show that Pt-0.34 wt% Ni/CNTs catalyst exhibits the highest activity and selectivity at a reaction temperature of 70 °C under a pressure of around 2.0 MPa, and 98.6% for the conversion of CMA and 88.2% for the selectivity of CMA to HCMA, respectively. The selective hydrogenation for the CC bond in CMA would be improved as increasing the reaction temperature, and the hydrogenation for the CO bond in CMA is enhanced as increasing the H2 pressure. In addition, these catalysts have also been characterized using TEM-EDS, XPS, H2-TPR and H2-TPD techniques. The results show that Pt particles are dispersed more homogeneously on the outer surface of the nanotubes, while the strong interaction between Pt and Ni would improve the increasing of activated hydrogen number because of the hydrogen spillover from reduced Pt0 onto CNTs and increase the catalytic activity and selectivity of CMA to HCMA.  相似文献
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一种新的适用于水声信道的常模类盲均衡算法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为了缓解常数模盲均衡算法收敛速度缓慢、稳态误差大的问题,考虑到初始化权值对CMA算法的重要影响,本文利用遗传算法对CMA算法进行了有效改进,引入了小样本重用的思想,给出了一种新的适用于水声信道的常模类盲均衡算法。计算机仿真研究证明,该算法不仅大大加快了收敛速度,而且有效地降低了稳态误差。  相似文献
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柳雷  赖惠成  贾振红 《光子学报》2014,40(6):898-901
均衡技术是用来解决通信系统中码间干扰的常用方法.针对传统恒模算法的收敛速度和稳态剩余码间干扰大的缺点,将双模式多模算法和改进型判决引导算法结合起来,并且应用于分数间隔盲均衡器中.该算法初期用双模式算法收敛均衡器,然后切换到改进型判决引导算法中进一步收敛,由于分数间隔均衡器解决了波特间隔均衡器因抽样率不高带来的频谱混叠问题,从而进一步地提高了均衡效果.蒙特卡罗仿真表明,该算法不仅收敛速度快,而且得到较低的剩余码间干扰.  相似文献
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In order to solve the problem of ill-convergence for constant modulus algorithm (CMA) in polarization division multiplexing system with optical coherent receivers, a modified CMA based on bit error rate (BER) aiding to control initial tap setup, named as BER-Aiding CMA (BA-CMA), is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the principle of CMA for adaptive digital equalization and polarization demultiplexing, the convergence behavior that leads to undesirable result is evaluated and therefore BA-CMA is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is able to overcome the undesirable convergence effectively and keep inherent advantages of CMA at the same time.  相似文献
6.
Conventional chromosome staining has suggested that more than 75% of the tomato chromosomes are constituted by heterochromatin. In order to determine whether more deeply stained proximal regions are classic heterochromatin, the distributions of C-bands and chromomycin A3 (CMA) bands, and the prophase condensation patterns, were analysed in tomato. In this and most other species of the tomato clade, the 5S and 45S rDNA sites were also localised. In tomato, CMA banding was similar to C-banding. After conventional staining, all species displayed large condensed heteropycnotic regions that did not correspond to C-bands or CMA bands. Analyses of the CMA banded karyotypes revealed a low heterochromatin content. Around 12–17% of the chromatin of tomato was CMA+ and 1/4 to 1/5 of this heterochromatin corresponded to 45S rDNA. In other species, the CMA+ heterochromatin showed extensive variation (8–35%), but was never near the values found in the literature for tomato. These data suggest the existence of three principal fractions of chromatin in tomato and related species: the late condensed euchromatin corresponding to the terminal regions of the chromosomes, the precocious condensed euchromatin that occupies the major part of the chromosomes and the constitutive heterochromatin that represents those regions revealed by C-bands.  相似文献
7.
Yan Li 《Applied Surface Science》2008,254(9):2609-2614
The Pt-Co catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been prepared by wet impregnation and the selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) to the corresponding cinnamyl alcohol (CMO) over the catalysts has been studied in ethanol at different reaction conditions. The results show that Pt-0.17 wt%Co/CNTs catalyst exhibits the highest activity and selectivity at a reaction temperature of 60 °C under a pressure of around 2.5 MPa, and 92.4% for the conversion of CMA and 93.6% for the selectivity of CMA to CMO, respectively. The selective hydrogenation for the CO double bond in CMA would be improved as increasing the H2 pressure, and the selective hydrogenation for the CC double bond in CMA is enhanced as increasing the reaction temperature. In addition, these catalysts have also been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and H2-temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD) techniques. The results show that Pt particles are dispersed more homogeneously on the outer surface of the nanotubes, while the strong interaction between Pt and Co would improve the increasing of activated hydrogen number because of the hydrogen spillover from reduced Pt0 onto CNTs and increase the catalytic activity and selectivity of CMA to CMO.  相似文献
8.
We have developed a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DPCMA) with an outer diameter of 26 mm. The DPCMA consists of a shield for the electric field, inner and outer cylinders, two pinholes with a diameter of 2.0 mm, and an electron multiplier. By assembling the DPCMA in a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA) coaxially and confocally we developed an analyzer for Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS). The performance was estimated by measuring the Si-LVV-Auger Si-1s-photoelectron coincidence spectra of clean Si(1 1 1). The electron-energy resolution of the DPCMA was estimated to be EE = 20. This value is better than that of the miniature single-pass CMA (EE = 12) that was used in the previous APECS analyzer.  相似文献
9.
Based on a new multipath channel model, a spatial-temporal combined CM equalization approach is derived at millimeter waves. Computer simulations are presented to testify the theoretical analysis. It is shown that this method can compensate the signal degradation caused by indoor multipath propagation. The convergence behavior of the spatial-temporal CMA is also analyzed.  相似文献
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