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利用硫酸氧钛铵的热分解控制制备了氮和硫共同掺杂的TiO2双功能光催化剂. TiO2双功能光催化剂同时具备光催化性能和较强的Br?nsted酸性,因此能够在太阳光照射和不外加酸下有效光催化还原Cr(VI)离子. 其光催化还原Cr(VI)离子的活性要优于通过外加硫酸调节到等同pH值和太阳光照射下P25光催化剂光催化还原Cr(VI)离子的活性.  相似文献
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Metal-oxide interfaces are of great importance in catalytic applications since each material can provide a distinct functionality that is necessary for efficient catalysis in complex reaction pathways. Moreover, the synergy between two materials can yield properties that exceed the superposition of single sites. While interfaces between metals and metal oxides can play a key role in the reactivity of traditional supported catalysts, significant attention has recently been focused on using “inverted” oxide/metal catalysts to prepare catalytic interfaces with unique properties. In the inverted systems, metal surfaces or nanoparticles are covered by oxide layers ranging from submonolayer patches to continuous films with thickness at the nanometer scale. Inverse catalysts provide an alternative approach for catalyst design that emphasizes control over interfacial sites, including inverted model catalysts that provide an important tool for elucidation of mechanisms of interfacial catalytic reactions and oxide-coated metal nanoparticles that can yield improved stability, activity and selectivity for practical catalysts.This review begins by providing a summary of recent progress in the use of inverted model catalysts in surface science studies, where oxides are usually deposited onto the surface of metal single crystals under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Surface-level studies of inverse systems have yielded key insights into interfacial catalysis and facilitated active site identification for important reactions such as CO oxidation, the water-gas shift reaction, and CO2 reduction using well-defined model systems, informing strategies for designing improved technical catalysts. We then expand the scope of inverted catalysts, using the “inverse” strategy for preparation of higher-surface area practical catalysts, chiefly through the deposition of metal oxide films or particles onto metal nanoparticles. The synthesis techniques include encapsulation of metal nanoparticles within porous oxide shells to generate core-shell type catalysts using wet chemical techniques, the application of oxide overcoat layers through atomic layer deposition or similar techniques, and spontaneous formation of metal oxide coatings from more conventional catalyst geometries under reaction or pretreatment conditions. Oxide-coated metal nanoparticles have been applied for improvement of catalyst stability, control over transport or binding to active sites, direct modification of the active site structure, and formation of bifunctional sites. Following a survey of recent studies in each of these areas, future directions of inverted catalytic systems are discussed.  相似文献
3.
Catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are at the heart of water oxidation reactions. Despite continuous efforts, the development of OER/HER electrocatalysts with high activity at low cost remains a big challenge. Herein, a composite material consisting of TC@WO3@g‐C3N4@Ni‐NiO complex matrix as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for the OER and HER is described. Though the catalyst has modest activity for HER, it exhibits high OER activity thereby making it a better nonprecious electrocatalyst for both OER and HER and is further improved by g‐C3N4. The catalytic activity arises from the synergetic effects between WO3, Ni‐NiO, and g‐C3N4. A Ni‐NiO alloy and WO3 nanoparticles decorated on the g‐C3N4 surface supported toray carbon (TC) matrix (TC@WO3@g‐C3N4@Ni‐NiO) by a facile route that show an excellent and durable bifunctional catalytic activity for OER and HER in the alkaline medium are developed. This carbon nitride with binary metal/metal‐oxide matrix supported with TC exhibit an overpotential of 0.385 and 0.535 V versus RHE at a current density of 10 mA cm−2 (Tafel slopes of 0.057 and 0.246 V dec−1 for OER and HER, respectively), in 0.1 m NaOH . The catalyst is tested in water electrolysis for 17 h.  相似文献
4.
Spinel MnCo2O4 nanoparticles on nitrogen‐doped reduced graphene oxide (MnCo2O4/NGr) are synthesized for advanced zinc–air batteries with remarkable cyclic efficiency and stability. The synthesized MnCo2O4/NGr exhibits good oxygen‐reduction reaction (ORR) activity with half‐wave potential E1/2 of 0.85 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), comparable to commercial Pt/C with E1/2 of 0.88 V (vs RHE) along with superior oxygen electrode activity ΔE = 0.91 V for the ORR/OER (oxygen‐evolution reaction) in alkaline media. Durability tests confirm that MnCo2O4/NGr is more stable than Pt/C in alkaline environment. MnCo2O4/NGr functions with stable discharge profile of 1.2 V at 20 mA cm−2, large discharge capacity of 707 mAh g−1Zn at 40 mA cm−2 and a high energy density of 813 Wh kg−1Zn in a mechanically rechargeable zinc–air battery. The electrically rechargeable MnCo2O4/NGr zinc–air battery displays hybrid behavior with both Faradaic and oxygen redox charge–discharge characteristics, operating at higher voltage and providing higher power density and excellent cyclic efficiency of 86% for over 100 cycles compared to Pt/C with efficiency of around 60%. Moreover, hybrid zinc–air battery operates with a stable and energy efficient profile at different current densities.  相似文献
5.
An efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution has been prepared via the deposition of iron–nickel layered double‐hydroxide (FeNi‐LDH) nanosheets on 3D carbon network as the building scaffold in a one‐step hydrothermal process. It is found that upon the assembling of FeNi‐LDH nanosheets with graphene into the 3D cross‐linked hybrid, the FeNi‐LDH/graphene hybrid features a well‐improved catalytic activity towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with a good stability during the long‐term cycling experiment. Moreover, the hybrid catalyst is also active in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), qualifying it as a new type of bifunctional catalyst that can work in metal–air batteries.  相似文献
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研究了在超临界乙醇中、氢气存在下,一系列金属-酸双功能催化剂的酸性、孔径大小、负载的金属对热解木质素加氢裂解过程的影响.制备并采用N2等温吸附和BET比表面、X射线衍射、NH3-程序升温脱附技术对催化剂进行表征.实验结果表明催化剂酸性增强可促进热解木质素的缩聚反应,从而产生大量的焦炭和水,导致其液化效率降低.微孔催化剂比介孔催化剂孔径小,与强酸共同作用会导致热解木质素裂解生成更多的小分子气体.在催化剂上负载金属Ru可有效地抑制热解木质素的缩聚反应,促进其裂解液化.  相似文献
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