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1.

Determination of the regression rate of a fast moving solid/liquid interface using ultrasonics

**总被引：12，自引：0，他引：12**This paper reports on an ultrasonic measurement system and its application for in situ real-time measurement of very fast regression rates (>200 mm/s) of the melting interface (RRMI) produced when burning particular metals such as aluminium at high pressures. The RRMI is referred to as the rate at which a solid/liquid interface moves along a metallic rod while burning in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. The ultrasonic transducer and associated equipment used to drive and record the transducer's output signal and conversion of this output into a regression rate is described. Aluminium rods were burned in pure gaseous oxygen at pressures up to 69 MPa (10,000 psia) where the RRMI was calculated at 204+/-2 mm/s. Other tests with a variety of sample materials, geometric shapes and test conditions were also conducted. The resulting RRMI's calculated with the ultrasonic measurement system compare excellently with rates obtained using a visual review of the same tests and with published results (where available). 相似文献

2.

An integrated wave-effects model for an underwater explosion bubble

**总被引：12，自引：0，他引：12**A model for a moderately deep underwater explosion bubble is developed that integrates the shock wave and oscillation phases of the motion. A hyperacoustic relationship is formulated that relates bubble volume acceleration to far-field pressure profile during the shock-wave phase, thereby providing initial conditions for the subsequent oscillation phase. For the latter, equations for bubble-surface response are derived that include wave effects in both the external liquid and the internal gas. The equations are then specialized to the case of a spherical bubble, and bubble-surface displacement histories are calculated for dilational and translational motion. Agreement between these histories and experimental data is found to be substantially better than that produced by previous models. 相似文献

3.

Vijaya Kumar Ambarisha 《Journal of sound and vibration》2007,302(3):577-595

Vibration-induced gear noise and dynamic loads remain key concerns in many transmission applications that use planetary gears. Tooth separations at large vibrations introduce nonlinearity in geared systems. The present work examines the complex, nonlinear dynamic behavior of spur planetary gears using two models: (i) a lumped-parameter model, and (ii) a finite element model. The two-dimensional (2D) lumped-parameter model represents the gears as lumped inertias, the gear meshes as nonlinear springs with tooth contact loss and periodically varying stiffness due to changing tooth contact conditions, and the supports as linear springs. The 2D finite element model is developed from a unique finite element-contact analysis solver specialized for gear dynamics. Mesh stiffness variation excitation, corner contact, and gear tooth contact loss are all intrinsically considered in the finite element analysis. The dynamics of planetary gears show a rich spectrum of nonlinear phenomena. Nonlinear jumps, chaotic motions, and period-doubling bifurcations occur when the mesh frequency or any of its higher harmonics are near a natural frequency of the system. Responses from the dynamic analysis using analytical and finite element models are successfully compared qualitatively and quantitatively. These comparisons validate the effectiveness of the lumped-parameter model to simulate the dynamics of planetary gears. Mesh phasing rules to suppress rotational and translational vibrations in planetary gears are valid even when nonlinearity from tooth contact loss occurs. These mesh phasing rules, however, are not valid in the chaotic and period-doubling regions. 相似文献

4.

Visualization of acoustic radiation from a vibrating bowling ball.

**总被引：10，自引：0，他引：10**This paper presents visualization of acoustic radiation from a vibrating bowling ball using the Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) method. In conducting the experiments, the ball is excited by a vibration shaker using stationary random signals. The radiated acoustic pressures are measured using two microphones and taken as input to the HELS formulations. The reconstructed acoustic pressures on the bowling ball surface are compared with those measured at the same locations. Also shown are comparisons of the reconstructed and measured acoustic pressure spectra at various locations on the bowling ball surface. Results demonstrate that the accuracy of reconstruction based on measurements over a conformal surface is much higher than that over a finite planar surface. This is because the latter often extends beyond the near-field region, making the accuracy of measurements inconsistent. Nevertheless, satisfactory reconstruction of acoustic pressure fields over the entire bowling ball surface can still be obtained based on the measurements taken over a finite planar surface on one side of the source. In a similar manner, the normal component of the surface velocity is reconstructed. Once these acoustic quantities are determined, the time-averaged acoustic intensity is calculated. Also presented are the formulations for estimating a priori the numbers of expansion functions and measurements required by the HELS method and the guidelines for determining the reconstruction error and optimum measurement locations, given the overall dimensions of the source and the highest frequency of interest in reconstruction. 相似文献

5.

Lin Li 《Optics and Lasers in Engineering》2000,34(4-6):231-253

This paper presents a review of the direct applications of high-power diode lasers for materials processing including soldering, surface modification (hardening, cladding, glazing and wetting modifications), welding, scribing, sheet metal bending, marking, engraving, paint stripping, powder sintering, synthesis, brazing and machining. The specific advantages and disadvantages of diode laser materials processing are compared with CO

_{2}, Nd:YAG and excimer lasers. An effort is made to identify the fundamental differences in their beam/material interaction characteristics and materials behaviour. Also an appraisal of the future prospects of the high-power diode lasers for materials processing is given. 相似文献6.

Enhanced vibration performance of ultrasonic block horns

**总被引：9，自引：0，他引：9**Block horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at a low ultrasonic frequency. Reliable performance of such horns is normally associated with the amplitude of vibration, uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the avoidance of modal participation by non-tuned modes at the operating frequency. In order to maximise vibration amplitude uniformity, standard slotting configurations are included in the horn design. However, defining a slotted block geometry which guarantees sufficient tuned frequency isolation from nearby modes as well as high amplitude and amplitude uniformity, is not straightforward. This paper discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of block horns which operate as intermediate components in ultrasonic systems, where the block horn dominates the vibration behaviour of the system. The importance of mode shape characterisation is discussed and modes are classified using experimental data from 3D laser Doppler vibrometer measurements and finite element analysis. In particular, the role of additional fine slots and castellations are studied with reference to two distinct ultrasonic applications involving a similar block horn. 相似文献

7.

本文提出了用线性相关计算法形成数字剪切散斑干涉条纹的新方法,从理论分析和实验研究均证明,用该方法所获得的数字剪切散斑相关条纹图在图象监视器上易于观看,条纹图象光强无直流分量影响且可见度较减模式要高,该新方法的采用为今后的条纹图象分析奠定了基础。 相似文献

8.

A nonlinear model of thermoacoustic devices

**总被引：8，自引：0，他引：8**This paper presents a nonlinear, time-domain model of thermoacoustic devices based on cross-sectional averaged equations. Heat transfer perpendicular to the device axis--which lies at the core of thermoacoustic effects--is modeled in a novel and more realistic way. Heat conduction in the solid surfaces surrounding the fluid medium is included. Contrary to the previous versions of this model [Watanabe et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 3484-3496 (1997)], the present version does not require artificial damping and is numerically robust. The model performance is illustrated on several examples: a prime mover, an externally driven thermoacoustic refrigerator, and a combined prime mover/refrigerator system. 相似文献

9.

Evaluation of synthetic phospholipid ultrasound contrast agents

**总被引：8，自引：0，他引：8**The echogenic properties of synthetic, phospholipid encapsulated, air-filled microbubbles with various carbon-chain length as ultrasound contrast agents are investigated through the use of a flow-through laboratory ultrasound system. Specifically, we investigate the effect of shell carbon-chain length on the ultrasonic signal for a variety of flow rates. Averaged, integrated backscatter power measurements from the lipid encapsulated agents are benchmarked against those of Albunex (Albunex is a registered trademark of Molecular Biosystems, Inc., San Diego, CA), a commercially available, air-filled protein microbubbles contrast agent, approved for clinical use in echocardiography in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration. We find that the lipid encapsulated agents sustain less damage leading to gas dissolution or particle destruction as compared to Albunex in the slow-flow studies performed. The carbon-chain length of the encapsulating lipid molecule is shown not to observably affect the backscattered amplitude of ultrasound at flow velocities exceeding 7 mm/s. 相似文献

10.

Applying the general-purpose finite-element package program (ISAP), a three-dimensional finite-element method (FEM) model of a human right middle ear, which included ossicles, was made and the mechanical properties and boundary conditions of the middle ear were determined by a comparison between the numerical results obtained from the FEM analysis and the measurement results of the fresh cadavers, normal subjects and patients, which were obtained by our developed sweep frequency middle ear analyzer (MEA). The "Elastic" boundary condition consisting of linear and torsional springs at the eardrum attachments to the annular ligament was more appropriate for the actual condition than "fully clamped" one. Rotational axis of the ossicular chain was assumed to be a fixed straight line from the anterior process of the malleus to the short process of the incus, and a load of the ossicular chain and cochlea was simplified to be expressed by the stiffness of the cochlea. Vibration patterns of the eardrum and ossicles at the first resonance frequency, obtained under these assumptions, were in agreement with the experimental results obtained by means of time-averaged holography and by using a video measuring system, except for the relatively large displacements at the tympanic ring. 相似文献