首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   146篇
  完全免费   11篇
  物理学   157篇
  2018年   3篇
  2017年   6篇
  2016年   5篇
  2015年   5篇
  2014年   8篇
  2013年   14篇
  2012年   11篇
  2011年   27篇
  2010年   17篇
  2009年   17篇
  2008年   13篇
  2007年   7篇
  2006年   8篇
  2005年   6篇
  2003年   3篇
  2002年   2篇
  2001年   1篇
  2000年   3篇
  1997年   1篇
排序方式: 共有157条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles, defined here as those with diameters less than 0.5 μm, typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. These particles are formed primarily through ash vaporization, nucleation, and coagulation/condensation mechanisms, which lead to compositions notably different compared to other fine or coarse particle fractions formed by fragmentation. Whereas previous studies have focused on health effects of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) (including both vaporization and fragmentation modes), this paper reports results of interdisciplinary research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes, but not always, contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. Although the single direct inhalation study failed to reveal significant health effects, the instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. Further, this increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygen species, oxidation–reduction cycling, and oxidative stress.  相似文献
2.
Removal of dinitrotoluenes in wastewater by sono-activated persulfate   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Oxidative degradation of dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) in wastewater was performed using persulfate anions combined with ultrasonic irradiation, wherein a synergistic effect is observed. The batch-wise experiments were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating parameters on sono-activated persulfate oxidation, including ultrasonic power intensity, persulfate anion concentration, reaction temperature and acidity of wastewater. It is noteworthy that the nitrotoluene contaminants could be almost completely eliminated by virtue of sono-activated persulfate oxidation, wherein sulfate radicals serve as principal oxidants, of which amounts are significantly enhanced via addition of sodium sulfate. Based on the results given by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), it is postulated that the methyl group of DNTs preliminarily underwent oxidation pathway into dinitrobenzoic acid, followed by decarboxylation to form 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB). In sum, the sono-activated persulfate oxidation is a promising method for treatment of nitrotoluenes in wastewater.  相似文献
3.
In this study, the nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were carried out by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with CH4/Ar/H2 gas concoction on Si substrate at moderate temperatures. The characteristics of NCD films were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical emission spectroscopy and optical contact angle meter. The analytical results revealed that C2 radial was the dominant species in the deposited process. From TEM observation, the NCD films were formed via the etching of hydrocarbons and a small amount of H2 content additive into gas mixture has improved the aggregation of the nucleation film to form the NCD films. The more hydrophobic surfaces imply that NCD films are the potential biomaterial in the application of article heart valve or stent.  相似文献
4.
One-pot sonochemical fabrication of hierarchical hollow CuO submicrospheres   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Hierarchical hollow CuO submicrospheres have been fabricated on a large scale by a facile one-pot sonochemical process in the absence of surfactants and additives. The as-prepared products were investigated by XRD, FESEM, EDX, TEM, SAED, HRTEM and BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results reveal that hollow pumpkin-shaped structures possess a monoclinic phase CuO with the diameters ranging from 400 to 500 nm, and their walls with around 45 nm in thickness are composed of numerous single crystalline CuO nanoribbons with a width of about 8 nm. The BET specific surface area of the as-synthesized CuO hollow structures was measured to be 59.60 m(2)/g, and the single point adsorption total pore volume was measured to be 0.1036 cm(3)/g. A possible growth mechanism for the formation of hierarchical hollow CuO structures was proposed, which is considered to be a sonohydrolysis - oriented aggregation - Ostwald ripening process. The novel hollow CuO spherical structures may utilize applications in biosensors, photonics, electronics, and catalysts.  相似文献
5.
The fundamental processes related to the removal of fine particles from surfaces in a hydrodynamic flow field are not adequately understood. A critical particle Reynolds number approach is proposed to assess these mechanisms for fine particles when surface roughness is small compared to particle diameter. At and above the critical particle Reynolds number, particle removal occurs, while below the critical value, particles remain attached to a surface. The system under consideration consists of glass particles adhering to a glass surface in laminar channel flow. Our results indicate rolling is the removal mechanism, which is in agreement with the literature. Theoretical results of the critical particle Reynolds number model for rolling removal are in general agreement with experimental data when particle size distribution, particle and surface roughness, and system Hamaker constant are taken into account.  相似文献
6.
The direct silanation of nanosized superparamagnetic particles (γ-Fe2O3) using 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane is described. The silanized films are characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse-reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electrokinetics. The silanation is conducted in both organic (toluene) and water solutions to examine the solvent effect on the molecular orientation and packing density of the silanized films. Depending on the solvent, about 74 to 83% of amine groups are found to be un-protonated and remain reactive on the particles. In acidic environment, the films silanized in toluene are more stable than that in water, but both are unstable in basic environment.  相似文献
7.
基于荧光响应的氨传感膜研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
利用有机改性溶胶-凝胶的包埋方式,以氨基荧光素(AF)为荧光指示探针制备氨传感敏感膜,考察了AF与γ-[(2,3)-环氧丙氧基]丙基三甲氧基硅烷(GOPS)作用后的膜泄漏度及荧光光谱行为的变化,对氨传感敏感膜的配比进行了一系列的优化,获得了对氨具有高响应灵敏度而对pH无响应的氨光传感敏感膜.利用自行构建的氨传感检测装置对水体中氨进行了检测,传感膜对水溶液NH4的最低检出限为0.3 μg·mL-1,测定的相对标准偏差为4%,线性范围为1~80μg·mL-1,响应时间(t95)为4 min,敏感膜使用寿命大于6个月.  相似文献
8.
Nanosized Fe/Ni and Fe/Pd particles were synthesized in the polyacrylic acid (PAA)/polyether sulfone (PES) composite membrane matrix for reductive transformation of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs). The advantages of using membrane to immobilize nanoparticles are the reduction of particles loss, prevention of particles agglomeration, and potential application of convective flow. Cross-linked PAA/PES composite membranes containing metal ions as particles precursor were prepared by heat treatment with ethylene glycol (EG) as a cross-linking agent. Nanoscale metal particles were formed and immobilized inside the membrane matrix after reduction with sodium borohydride. Membrane morphology and structure were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size and distribution were characterized by SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to obtain the qualitative and quantitative element information of particles. A specimen-drift-free EDS line profile and EDS mapping system was performed in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to determine the two-dimensional element distribution of iron and nickel in the nano domain. In the dechlorination study with trichloroethylene (TCE) as a representative HOCs, rapid and complete destruction of TCE was achieved by using nanosized bimetallic Fe/Ni or Fe/Pd in PAA/PES composite membranes. Typically more than 95% of 10 mg/l TCE was reduced within 1 h. Ethane was found in the headspace as the main product.  相似文献
9.
In this paper, the thermal stress of the double-ceramic-layer (DCL) La2Zr2O7/8YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) during thermal shock has been calculated. The residual stress of the coating after being sprayed has been regarded as the initial condition of the first thermal cycle. The characteristic of the stress development during the thermal cycle has been discussed, and the influence of the defects on the failure mode during the thermal cycle has also been discussed systematically. Finite element simulation results show that there exist higher radial thermal shock stresses on the ceramic layer surface of these two coatings. There also exist higher thermal stress gradient at the interface between the ceramic layer and the metallic layer. Higher thermal stress in 8YSZ/NiCoCrAlY coating lead to the decrease of thermal shock property as compared to that of LZ/8YSZ/NiCoCrAlY coating. The addition of LZ ceramic layer can increase the insulation temperature, impede the oxygen transferring to the bond coating and can also reduce the thermal stress. Considering from the aspects of thermal insulation ability and the thermal shock resistance ability, DCL type LZ/8YSZ TBCs is a more promising coating material compared with the single-ceramic-layer (SCL) type 8YSZ TBCs for the application.  相似文献
10.
恩曲他滨的波谱学数据与结构确证   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
对恩曲他滨化合物1的紫外吸收光谱(UV)、红外吸收光谱(IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1 H NMR)、氢-氢相关谱(1 H-1 H COSY)、核磁共振碳谱13 C NMR、DEPT谱、碳氢相关谱(HMQC)、碳氢远程相关谱(HMBC)及质谱(MS)进行了解析,对其所有的NMR谱信号进行了归属,纠正了文献[11]中的归属错误,讨论了红外光谱特征吸收峰所对应的官能团的振动形式,通过上述多种波谱技术确证了恩曲他滨的结构.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号