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1.
A novel silicon-based glassy composite anode material with high initial coulombic efficiency and long cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries was synthesized by a wet mechanochemical reduction method. The in situ formed Si particles with size of 5-10 nm were uniformly distributed in the glassy matrices formed by B2O3 and P2O5. The as-prepared composite electrode revealed an initial charge and discharge capacity of 432.7 and 514.4 mAh g− 1, respectively, with an initial coulombic efficiency of 84%. After 100 cycles, the reversible capacity retention rate was still up to 97%, meaning a favorable cycling stability.  相似文献
2.
We observe laser-induced grain morphology change in silicon nanopillars under a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) environment. We couple the TEM with a near-field scanning optical microscopy pulsed laser processing system. This novel combination enables immediate scrutiny on the grain morphologies that the pulsed laser irradiation produces. We find unusual transformation of the tip of the amorphous or polycrystalline silicon pillar into a single crystalline domain via melt-mediated crystallization. On the basis of the three-dimensional finite difference simulation result and the dark field TEM data, we propose that the creation of the distinct single crystalline tip originates from the dominant grain growth initiated at the apex of the non-planar liquid–solid interface. Our microscopic observation provides a fundamental basis for laser-induced conversion of amorphous nanostructures into coarse-grained crystals.  相似文献
3.
We introduced a metallic nanograting at the bottom of thin-film tandem solar cells, and carried out an investigation into the light absorption in the top and bottom cells via the electromagnetic simulation. It indicates that broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement can be obtained in the bottom cell, while the light absorption in the top cell remains unchanged by the influence of the added metallic nanograting. An overall carrier generation enhancement reaches as much as 60 % for both incident polarizations. This absorption enhancement can survive in a wide range of the cell thickness and the nanograting geometries, which enables us to reduce the thickness of the bottom cell with minimal impact on the light absorption. Thereby, this design could reduce the solar cell production cost, and meanwhile could enhance the solar cell efficiency by decreasing the light-generated carrier recombination rate.  相似文献
4.
Mössbauer spectroscopy investigation of superconducting Sm0.85Ba0.15FeAsO0.7F0.3 (T c = 37 K) has been performed. The spectra appear to be a singlet pattern throughout the temperature range of 20–290 K. The value of Debye temperature is obtained (θ D ~ 390 K). Unusual behavior of the central shift as a function of temperature is observed below 60 K. Unlike cuprate superconductors, phonon softening is not observed near T c of the iron pnictide.  相似文献
5.
We report the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag-type 2H-VS2 nanoribbons based on the first-principles calculations. Our results suggest that the zigzag-type 2H-VS2 nanoribbons are intrinsic ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic materials dependent on their edge structures. The S-terminated VS2 nanoribbons with or without hydrogen saturation at the edges are ferromagnetic, whereas V-terminated VS2 nanoribbons are ferrimagnetic at their ground states. The average magnetic moment per V atom of VS2 nanoribbons increases monotonously with their width, but still smaller than that of perfect VS2 monolayer. These results imply the great potential of VS2 nanoribbons in spintronics application.  相似文献
6.
A low-cost non-vacuum process for fabrication of CuInSe2 (CIS) films by solvent-free mechanochemical method and spin-coating process is described. First, highly monodisperse Cu, In oxides nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile, solvent-free route, which is the first applied in the CIS solar cells. Second, the oxide particulate precursors are deposited in a thin layer by spin-coating technique. Finally, the dry layers are sintered into CIS thin films with composition control by sequential reduction and selenization. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), it is found that near stoichiometric CIS films with a micron-sized dense grains are obtained in our work. Three types of mixed nitrates are used to fabricate oxides, the influence of the degree of mixing on the CIS films have been investigated.  相似文献
7.
By integrating together VO2??s unique near-room-temperature (RT) semiconductor?Cmetal (S?CM) phase transition with a thin silver (Ag) layer??s plasmonic properties, VO2/Ag multilayers could present a much enhanced optical transmission change when increasing the temperature from RT to over VO2??s S?CM phase-transition temperature. Changing VO2 and Ag layer thicknesses can also significantly tune their transmission and absorption properties, which could lead to a few useful designs in optoelectronic and energy-saving industries.  相似文献
8.
以传统的浸渍法,在不同焙烧温度下制备了用于CO氧化反应的Co3O4/SiO2催化剂.通过激光拉曼光谱(Raman)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、X射线衍射(XRD)、程序升温还原(TPR)和X射线吸收精细结构谱(XAFS)表征了该系列催化剂的结构.在所有的催化剂中,XRD和Raman光谱都只检测到了Co3O4晶相的存在.与Co3O4体相相比,XPS结果表明在200 oC焙烧的(Co3O4(200)/SiO2)催化剂中Co3O4表面上存在着过量的Co2+.与XPS的结果一致,TPR结果表明Co3O4(200)/SiO2催化剂中Co3O4表面上存在氧缺陷, 并且XAFS结果也表明Co3O4(200)/SiO2催化剂中Co3O4具有更多的Co2+.提高焙烧温度使得过量的Co2+进一步氧化为Co3+,同时降低了表面氧缺陷浓度,从而得到计量比的Co3O44/SiO2催化剂.在所有的负载催化剂中Co3O4(200)/SiO2催化剂表现出了最好的CO氧化催化性能,表明过量Co2+和表面氧缺陷的存在能够促进Co3O4催化CO氧化反应的活性.  相似文献
9.
利用自组装胶体晶体模板导向电沉积制备氧化锌反蛋白石,利用液相沉积法在室温下制备复合氧化锌/氧化钛反蛋白石. 当对氧化锌反蛋白石进行20 min的液相沉积处理时,可以获得具有非密堆积三维有序多孔结构的氧化锌/氧化钛复合反蛋白石. 当液相沉积时间达到60 min时,则得到壁厚明显增强的纯氧化钛反蛋白石(TIO-LPD60). 讨论了样品成分和拓扑形貌变化的机理. 紫外光催化性能的初步研究显示,反蛋白石膜的光催化性能同时受到来自成分和拓扑形貌两方面的显著影响. 对比纯的氧化锌或者氧化钛反蛋白石,尽管样品具有相似的反蛋白石壁厚,ZnO/TiO2复合反蛋白石被证实具有明显增强的光催化活性. 然而,当反蛋白石壁厚从约52 nm增加到约90 nm时,TIO-LPD60显示了最高的光催化活性.  相似文献
10.
利用硫酸氧钛铵的热分解控制制备了氮和硫共同掺杂的TiO2双功能光催化剂. TiO2双功能光催化剂同时具备光催化性能和较强的Br?nsted酸性,因此能够在太阳光照射和不外加酸下有效光催化还原Cr(VI)离子. 其光催化还原Cr(VI)离子的活性要优于通过外加硫酸调节到等同pH值和太阳光照射下P25光催化剂光催化还原Cr(VI)离子的活性.  相似文献
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