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The photodissociation dynamics of isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been studied by the timesliced velocity map ion imaging technique at 193 nm. The NH(a1Δ) products were measured via (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. Images have been accumulated for the NH(a1Δ) rotational states in the ground and vibrational excited state (v=0 and 1). The center-of-mass translational energy distribution derived from the NH(a1Δ) images implies that the CO vibrational distributions are inverted for most of the measured 1NH(v|j) internal states. The anisotropic product angular distribution observed indicates a rapid dissociation process for the N-C bond cleavage. A bimodal rotational state distribution of CO(v) has been observed, this result implies that isocyanic acid dissociates in the S1 state in two different pathways.  相似文献
Spin-crossover (SCO) magnets can act as one of the most possible building blocks in molecular spintronics due to their magnetic bistability between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states. Here, the electronic structures and transport properties through SCO magnet Fe(II)-N4S2 complexes sandwiched between gold electrodes are explored by performing extensive density functional theory calculations combined with non-equilibrium Green''s function formalism. The optimized Fe-N and Fe-S distances and predicted magnetic moment of the SCO magnet Fe(II)-N4S2 complexes agree well with the experimental results. The reversed spin transition between the HS and LS states can be realized by visible light irradiation according to the estimated SCO energy barriers. Based on the obtained transport results, we observe nearly perfect spin- filtering effect in this SCO magnet Fe(II)-N4S2 junction with the HS state, and the corresponding current under small bias voltage is mainly contributed by the spin-down electrons, which is obviously larger than that of the LS case. Clearly, these theoretical findings suggest that SCO magnet Fe(II)-N4S2 complexes hold potential applications in molecular spintronics.  相似文献
Imaging the doping elements is critical for understanding the photocatalytic activity of doped TiO2 thin film. But it is still a challenge to characterize the interactions between the dopants and the TiO2 lattice at the atomic level. Here, we use high angle annular dark-field/annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscope (HAADF/ABF-STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to directly image the individual Cr atoms doped in anatase TiO2(001) thin film from [100] direction. The Cr dopants, which are clearly imaged through the atomic-resolution EELS mappings while can not be seen by HADDF/ABF-STEM, occupy both the substitutional sites of Ti atoms and the interstitial sites of TiO2 matrix. Most of them preferentially locate at the substitutional sites of Ti atoms. These results provide the direct evidence for the doping structure of Cr-doped A-TiO2 thin film at the atomic level and also prove the EELS mapping is an excellent technique for characterizing the doped materials.  相似文献
A novel trifunctional initiator with one alkyne and two trifluoromethanesulfonate moieties was synthesized from a protected alcohol 5-hydroxyl-2-phenyl-1, 3-dioxane. The alkyne functionalized intermediate with two protected alcohol groups was synthesized by reacting with propargyl bromide. The alcohol groups were cleaved using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and hydrochloric acid aqueous solution. In the last step the initiator was synthesized using triflic anhydride in carbon tetrachloride. The initiator was characterized by 1H NMR and used for the polymerization of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline which gives polymers with narrow distribution. For comparison a similar initiator with two tosylates was prepared and used for the polymerization of the monomer 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, the resulting product has a wide molecular weight distribution and most of the initiator remains unreacted after 24 h which may be due to the steric hindrance between the two tosylate groups. To further explore the steric hindrance phenomenon, a linear tosylate initiator was synthesized, but still some of the initiator remains unreacted, illustrating that both steric hindrance and electrophilic balance affect the efficiency of the cationic ring-opening polymerization. All of the polymers were characterized in detail by using 1H NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, and size exclusion chromatography to confirm the purity and distribution of the polymers.  相似文献
Characterization of real-time and ultrafast motions of the complex molecules at surface and interface is critical to understand how interfacial molecules function. It requires to develop surface-sensitive, fast-identification, and time-resolved techniques. In this study, we employ several key technical procedures and successfully develop a highly sensitive femtosecond time-resolved sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) system. This system is able to measure the spectra with two polarization combinations (ssp and ppp, or psp and ssp) simultaneously. It takes less than several seconds to collect one spectrum. To the best of our knowledge, it is the fastest speed of collecting SFG spectra reported by now. Using the time-resolved measurement, ultrafast vibrational dynamics of the N-H mode of α-helical peptide at water interface is determined. It is found that the membrane environment does not affect the N-H vibrational relaxation dynamics. It is expected that the time-resolved SFG system will play a vital role in the deep understanding of the dynamics and interaction of the complex molecules at surface and interface. Our method may also provide an important technical proposal for the people who plan to develop time-resolved SFG systems with simultaneous measurement of multiple polarization combinations.  相似文献
叶树集  李传召  张佳慧  谈军军  罗毅 《物理学报》2019,68(1):13101-013101
生物结合水在维护生物大分子的结构、稳定性以及调控动力学性质和生理功能等方面起着决定性的作用.从分子水平上理解生物结合水分子的结构与性质及其影响生物结构和功能的本质与规律,是揭示生物大分子生理功能机理的关键.目前生物结合水的结构与动力学相关研究尚处于初步阶段.本文从三个方面介绍当前生物结合水的相关研究及其进展:首先介绍结合水对蛋白质折叠、质子给予与迁移、配体结合与药物设计以及变构效应等生物结构和功能的影响;然后介绍生物分子周围的水分子结构研究情况;最后从时间尺度、动力学属性、生物分子与水分子之间的动力学耦合作用、蛋白质表面结合水次扩散运动等角度介绍生物分子水合动力学的研究进展,并归纳出一些目前尚待进一步解决的科学问题.  相似文献
蛋白质与界面相互作用是自然界中一种非常普遍但又十分复杂的现象,其在物理、生物技术、化学工程、药物、环境科学等诸多领域中发挥着极其重要的作用。生物膜界面蛋白质的错误折叠引起的功能障碍与许多疾病的发生和发展直接相关。原位、实时、精确地表征界面蛋白质分子构象变化与动力学行为是揭示界面蛋白质功能的核心,对阐明与蛋白质聚集相关的神经退化型疾病的发生和发展机理非常重要。但目前对其结构与动力学的了解相当匮乏,蛋白质折叠仍是分子生物学中心法则中至今尚未解决的一个重大生物学问题。这主要是因为其表征技术不仅要求具有足够高的结构分辨度和时间分辨度,还需满足时间、空间、活体、非介入性等要求,但同时满足这些要求的技术甚少。而和频振动光谱是一种可以在分子层次上探测界面蛋白质分子结构与动力学的表征方法。本文详细介绍了和频振动光谱技术在界面蛋白质结构与动力学表征方面的应用。通过原位实时探测不同蛋白质骨架振动的酰胺Ⅰ,酰胺Ⅲ与酰胺A谱带,可以实现界面蛋白质分子结构、构象变化与动力学特征的精确测量,进而揭示蛋白质–细胞膜相互作用、蛋白质–蛋白质相互作用、蛋白质聚集的分子机理。本综述将为人们研究复杂界面体系物理与化学问题提供新的思路。  相似文献
本文采用激光脉冲沉积(pulsed laser deposition,PLD)方法在NdGaO3(110)(NGO)和(LaAlO_3)_(0.3)(Sr_2AlTaO_6)_(0.7)(001)(LSAT)衬底上生长了厚度变化的钙钛矿结构CaIrO3(CIO)单晶薄膜.在这一体系中,我们观测到了金属绝缘转变现象以及各向异性电输运行为,并且尝试利用应变弛豫调节铱氧八面体绕[100]轴的扭转角度,改变金属绝缘转变温度(TMI).八面体的扭转角度在30nm厚的样品中取得了最大值,同时CIO的TMI取得了最小值.我们推测是八面体的扭转影响了CIO薄膜的带隙宽度,从而造成了TMI的变化以及各向异性电输运行为.  相似文献
徐萌  晏建民  徐志学  郭磊  郑仁奎  李晓光 《物理学报》2018,67(15):157506-157506
电子信息技术的迅速发展对磁电功能器件的微型化、智能化、多功能化以及灵敏度、可靠性、低功耗等都提出了更高的需求,传统的块体磁电功能材料已日渐不能满足上述需求,而层状磁电复合薄膜材料同时具有铁电性、铁磁性和磁电耦合等多种特性,因此能满足上述需求且有望应用于新一代磁电功能器件.层状磁电复合材料不仅具有非常丰富的物理现象和效应,而且在弱磁探测器、多态存储器、电写磁读存储器、电场可调低功耗滤波器、移相器、天线等微波器件中也具有广阔的应用前景,因而受到材料科学家和物理学家广泛的关注和研究.在层状磁电复合材料中,功能薄膜/铁电单晶异质结因其制备简单、结构设计和材料选择灵活以及电场调控方便和有效,最近十余年引起了越来越多的研究人员的兴趣.目前,以具有优异铁电和压电性能的(1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3(PMN-PT)单晶作为衬底,构建功能薄膜/PMN-PT异质结已成为国内外多铁性复合薄膜材料研究领域的重要方向之一.相比于其他国家,我国科学家无论在发表的文章数量还是在文章被引用次数方面都处于领先地位,表明我国在功能薄膜/PMN-PT单晶异质结方面的研究卓有成效.迄今为止,研究人员已构建了锰氧化合物/PMN-PT、铁氧体/PMN-PT、铁磁金属/PMN-PT、稀磁半导体/PMN-PT、发光材料/PMN-PT、二维材料/PMN-PT、多层薄膜/PMN-PT、超导薄膜/PMN-PT等多种类型的异质结,在理论研究和实验方面都取得了丰富的研究成果.本文对基于PMN-PT压电单晶的磁电复合薄膜材料的研究进展进行了总结:简要介绍了与功能薄膜/PMN-PT异质结相关的研究论文发表现状;介绍了PMN-PT单晶在准同型相界附近的相图和应变特性;按照功能薄膜材料所属的体系对异质结进行了分类,并选取部分代表性的研究成果,介绍了材料的磁电性能和内涵的物理机制;最后就目前有待解决的问题和未来可能的应用方向进行了总结和展望.  相似文献
翟晓芳  云宇  孟德超  崔璋璋  黄浩亮  王建林  陆亚林 《物理学报》2018,67(15):157702-157702
室温单相多铁材料非常稀缺,磁性元素掺杂的铋层状钙钛矿结构Aurivillius相氧化物是一类重要的单相室温多铁材料,但由于缺少单晶类样品,这一类多铁材料研究主要是围绕多晶类块体或者多晶薄膜展开,它们的磁、电等性能研究大都采用宏观探测方式,因此这类多铁材料的多铁性机理研究进行得非常困难.近年来在高质量单晶薄膜的基础上,研究了多种磁性元素掺杂和不同周期结构的铋层状氧化物多铁单晶薄膜.这些单晶薄膜在室温下大都具有层状面面内方向的铁电极化,以及比较小的室温磁化强度,低温区存在第二个磁性相变.通过X射线共振非弹性散射实验发现元素掺杂会改变金属和氧原子之间的氧八面体晶体场的劈裂,能够增强铁磁性.另一方面,通过极化中子反射实验发现薄膜主体的磁化强度远小于通常探测的宏观磁化强度,说明单晶薄膜中磁的来源及其磁电耦合机理和多晶块体很可能是不同的.铋层状单晶薄膜的多铁性对未来继续改善这类材料的多铁性能有很好的指导作用.  相似文献
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