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**排序方式：**共有55439条查询结果，搜索用时 46 毫秒

1.

Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms

**总被引：153，自引：0，他引：153**A constrained optimization type of numerical algorithm for removing noise from images is presented. The total variation of the image is minimized subject to constraints involving the statistics of the noise. The constraints are imposed using Lanrange multipliers. The solution is obtained using the gradient-projection method. This amounts to solving a time dependent partial differential equation on a manifold determined by the constraints. As

*t*→ ∞ the solution converges to a steady state which is the denoised image. The numerical algorithm is simple and relatively fast. The results appear to be state-of-the-art for very noisy images. The method is noninvasive, yielding sharp edges in the image. The technique could be interpreted as a first step of moving each level set of the image normal to itself with velocity equal to the curvature of the level set divided by the magnitude of the gradient of the image, and a second step which projects the image back onto the constraint set. 相似文献2.

Connectivity of growing random networks

**总被引：43，自引：0，他引：43**A solution for the time- and age-dependent connectivity distribution of a growing random network is presented. The network is built by adding sites that link to earlier sites with a probability A(k) which depends on the number of preexisting links k to that site. For homogeneous connection kernels, A(k) approximately k(gamma), different behaviors arise for gamma<1, gamma>1, and gamma = 1. For gamma<1, the number of sites with k links, N(k), varies as a stretched exponential. For gamma>1, a single site connects to nearly all other sites. In the borderline case A(k) approximately k, the power law N(k) approximately k(-nu) is found, where the exponent nu can be tuned to any value in the range 2相似文献

3.

Particle creation by black holes

**总被引：42，自引：0，他引：42** S. W. Hawking 《Communications in Mathematical Physics》1975,43(3):199-220

In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects
cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature
where κ is the surface gravity of the black hole. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black
hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10

^{15}g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law:*S*+1/4*A*never decreases where*S*is the entropy of matter outside black holes and*A*is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. 相似文献4.

Existence of solitary waves in higher dimensions

**总被引：40，自引：0，他引：40** Walter A. Strauss 《Communications in Mathematical Physics》1977,55(2):149-162

The elliptic equation

*u*=*F*(*u*) possesses non-trivial solutions in*R*^{ n }which are exponentially small at infinity, for a large class of functions*F*. Each of them provides a solitary wave of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation.This work was supported in part by NSF Grant MCS 75-08827 相似文献5.

Numerical data for the distribution of citations are examined for: (i) papers published in 1981 in journals which are catalogued
by the Institute for Scientific Information (783,339 papers) and (ii) 20 years of publications in Physical Review D, vols.
11-50 (24,296 papers). A Zipf plot of the number of citations to a given paper

*versus*its citation rank appears to be consistent with a power-law dependence for leading rank papers, with exponent close to -1/2. This, in turn, suggests that the number of papers with*x*citations,*N*(*x*), has a large-*x*power law decay , with . Received: 12 May 1998 / Accepted: 12 May 1998 相似文献6.

Application of ultrasonic irradiation for the degradation of chemical contaminants in water

**总被引：36，自引：0，他引：36**The sonochemical degradation of a variety of chemical contaminants in aqueous solution has been investigated. Substrates such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides, phenols, explosives such as TNT, and esters are transformed into short-chain organic acids, CO

_{2}, and inorganic ions as the final products. Time scales of treatment in simple batch reactors over the frequency range of 20 to 500 kHz are reported to range from minutes to hours for complete degradation. Ultrasonic irradiation appears to be an effective method for the rapid destruction of organic contaminants in water because of localized high concentrations of oxidizing species such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide in solution, high localized temperatures and pressures, and the formation of transient supercritical water.The degradation of chemical compounds by acoustic cavitation is shown to involve three distinct pathways: 1) oxidation by hydroxyl radicals, 2) pyrolytic decomposition and 3) supercritical water oxidation. Detailed reaction mechanisms for the degradation of p-nitrophenol, carbon tetrachloride, parathion, p-nitrophenyl acetate and trinitrotoluene are presented. 相似文献

7.

Nanoscale Iron Particles for Environmental Remediation: An Overview

**总被引：35，自引：0，他引：35** Wei-xian Zhang 《Journal of nanoparticle research》2003,5(3-4):323-332

Nanoscale iron particles represent a new generation of environmental remediation technologies that could provide cost-effective solutions to some of the most challenging environmental cleanup problems. Nanoscale iron particles have large surface areas and high surface reactivity. Equally important, they provide enormous flexibility for

*in situ*applications. Research has shown that nanoscale iron particles are very effective for the transformation and detoxification of a wide variety of common environmental contaminants, such as chlorinated organic solvents, organochlorine pesticides, and PCBs. Modified iron nanoparticles, such as catalyzed and supported nanoparticles have been synthesized to further enhance the speed and efficiency of remediation. In this paper, recent developments in both laboratory and pilot studies are assessed, including: (1) synthesis of nanoscale iron particles (10–100nm, >99.5% Fe) from common precursors such as Fe(II) and Fe(III); (2) reactivity of the nanoparticles towards contaminants in soil and water over extended periods of time (e.g., weeks); (3) field tests validating the injection of nanoparticles into aquifer, and (4)*in situ*reactions of the nanoparticles in the subsurface. 相似文献8.

Negative refractive index in left-handed materials

**总被引：35，自引：0，他引：35**The real part of the refractive index n(omega) of a nearly transparent and passive medium is usually taken to have only positive values. Through an analysis of a current source radiating into a 1D "left-handed" material (LHM)-where the permittivity and permeability are simultaneously less than zero-we determine the analytic structure of n(omega), demonstrating frequency regions where the sign of Re[n(omega)] must, in fact, be negative. The regime of negative index, made relevant by a recent demonstration of an effective LHM, leads to unusual electromagnetic wave propagation and merits further exploration. 相似文献

9.

Diffusion tensor MRI in temporal lobe epilepsy

**总被引：34，自引：0，他引：34** Arfanakis K Hermann BP Rogers BP Carew JD Seidenberg M Meyerand ME 《Magnetic resonance imaging》2002,20(7):511-519

The purpose of this study was to investigate the diffusion characteristics of white matter in patients with focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was applied to patients and normal controls. Rotationally invariant mean diffusivity and diffusion anisotropy maps were calculated for all subjects. Comparisons between the two groups were performed for several white matter structures. Mean diffusivity and diffusion anisotropy of each selected structure were tested for correlations with age at onset and duration of epilepsy. Significantly lower diffusion anisotropy, and higher diffusivity in directions perpendicular to the axons, was detected in several white matter structures of the patients when compared to the controls. These structures were not located in the temporal lobes. No significant difference in mean diffusivity was detected between the selected structures from the two groups. Diffusion anisotropy was significantly correlated with age at onset of epilepsy in the posterior corpus callosum. Duration of epilepsy was not significantly correlated with the diffusion indices from any of the selected structures. The results of this study suggest that diffusion anisotropy may reveal abnormalities in patients with focal TLE. In addition, these abnormal changes are not necessarily restricted to the temporal lobes but might extend in other brain regions as well. Furthermore, the age at onset of epilepsy may be an important factor in determining the extent of the effect of epilepsy on white matter. 相似文献

10.

Symmetry and related properties via the maximum principle

**总被引：33，自引：0，他引：33**We prove symmetry, and some related properties, of positive solutions of second order elliptic equations. Our methods employ various forms of the maximum principle, and a device of moving parallel planes to a critical position, and then showing that the solution is symmetric about the limiting plane. We treat solutions in bounded domains and in the entire space.Supported in part by the National Science Foundation, grant no. PHY-78-08066Partially supported by the U.S. Army Research Office, grant no. DAA 29-78-G-0127 相似文献