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1.
Sonochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite from H3PO4 solution with Ca(OH)2   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
Ultrasound was irradiated to an aqueous suspension containing phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) to investigate the sonochemical effect on preparation of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp). HAp monophase could be synthesized from the suspension sonicated for 60 min. The reaction for HAp was promoted more effectively than that of the heating method conducted at the same conditions as those for the sonicating method. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions sonicated over 60 min was maintained neutral, suggesting that the synthesis reaction was almost completed. The ultrasonic irradiation played an important role to progress the heterogeneous reaction and the preparation of very fine HAp powder.  相似文献
2.
Applying the general-purpose finite-element package program (ISAP), a three-dimensional finite-element method (FEM) model of a human right middle ear, which included ossicles, was made and the mechanical properties and boundary conditions of the middle ear were determined by a comparison between the numerical results obtained from the FEM analysis and the measurement results of the fresh cadavers, normal subjects and patients, which were obtained by our developed sweep frequency middle ear analyzer (MEA). The "Elastic" boundary condition consisting of linear and torsional springs at the eardrum attachments to the annular ligament was more appropriate for the actual condition than "fully clamped" one. Rotational axis of the ossicular chain was assumed to be a fixed straight line from the anterior process of the malleus to the short process of the incus, and a load of the ossicular chain and cochlea was simplified to be expressed by the stiffness of the cochlea. Vibration patterns of the eardrum and ossicles at the first resonance frequency, obtained under these assumptions, were in agreement with the experimental results obtained by means of time-averaged holography and by using a video measuring system, except for the relatively large displacements at the tympanic ring.  相似文献
3.
基于一种新微细加工技术的亚波长光栅的研制   总被引:7,自引:3,他引:4  
描述了一种新的亚波长光栅的微细加工技术,即电子束(EB)扫描曝光得到相应的亚微米级的线宽图形,再利用快速原子束刻蚀设备获得了高深宽比的立体结构。用此加工技术获得了100nm以下的刻蚀精度,并研制成功亚波长光栅。该亚微米线宽微细加工技术可用于布拉格光栅、半导体激光器、无反射表面等需要亚微米结构的器件中。  相似文献
4.
Role of spectral cues in median plane localization   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
The role of spectral cues in the sound source to ear transfer function in median plane sound localization is investigated in this paper. At first, transfer functions were measured and analyzed. Then, these transfer functions were used in experiments where sounds from a source on the median plane were simulated and presented to subjects through headphones. In these simulation experiments, the transfer functions were smoothed by ARMA models with different degrees of simplification to investigate the role of microscopic and macroscopic patterns in the transfer functions for median plane localization. The results of the study are summarized as follows: (1) For front-rear judgment, information derived from microscopic peaks and dips in the low-frequency region (below 2 kHz) and the macroscopic patterns in the high-frequency region seems to be utilized; (2) for judgment of elevation angle, major cues exist in the high-frequency region above 5 kHz. The information in macroscopic patterns is utilized instead of that in small peaks and dips.  相似文献
5.
Equal-loudness-level contours for pure tones   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Equal-loudness-level contours provide the foundation for theoretical and practical analyses of intensity-frequency characteristics of auditory systems. Since 1956 equal-loudness-level contours based on the free-field measurements of Robinson and Dadson [Br. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 166-181 (1956)] have been widely accepted. However, in 1987 some questions about the general applicability of these contours were published [H. Fastl and E. Zwicker, Fortschritte der Akustik, DAGA '87, pp. 189-193 (1987)]. As a result, a new international effort to measure equal-loudness-level contours was undertaken. The present paper brings together the results of 12 studies starting in the mid-1980s to arrive at a new set of contours. The new contours estimated in this study are compared with four sets of classic contours taken from the available literature. The contours described by Fletcher and Munson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 5, 82-108 (1933)] exhibit some overall similarity to our proposed estimated contours in the mid-frequency range up to 60 phons. The contours described by Robinson and Dadson exhibit clear differences from the new contours. These differences are most pronounced below 500 Hz and the discrepancy is often as large as 14 dB.  相似文献
6.
A method is proposed for estimating the sizes of surface cracks in magnetic materials. The method is based on applying a magnetic field, then determining the leakage magnetic field in the vicinity of a crack by moving a Hall element on the surface of the material along one or two scanning lines crossing the crack, and measuring the corresponding Hall voltage distribution. A dipole model of a crack is utilized, in which a surface crack is considered as being full of magnetic dipoles aligned parallel to the applied field, and whose density varies linearly along the depth of the crack. Analytical expressions are derived for the z-component of the intensity of the leakage magnetic field, and for the measured Hall voltage in the vicinity of a crack with an arbitrary cross-section along its long axis when it is perpendicular to the applied field. The crack sizes and the parameters of the distribution of magnetic dipoles along the crack depth are computed by crack inversion, which represents a regression for the Hall voltage distribution. A variable theoretical Hall voltage distribution is fitted to the measured Hall voltage distribution by minimizing the corresponding RMS error, which gives the unknown parameters at the end of the minimization. Hall voltage distributions are measured on ferromagnetic steel samples containing one artificial surface crack. Some crack inversions are performed for estimating the maximum crack depth and the crack width of cracks with rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sections along the long crack axis. The accuracy of these crack inversions increases by utilizing either Hall voltage distributions measured along only one of the scanning lines, instead of along both scanning lines, or by using more precisely measured Hall voltage distributions. The fast and accurate estimation of the maximum crack depth and the crack width by such crack inversions could be important for pipeline inspection. Other crack inversions are performed for determining the cross-section along the long axis of the investigated cracks with satisfactory results. Received: 2 March 2001 / Accepted: 10 April 2001 / Published online: 25 July 2001  相似文献
7.
8.
The degradation of phenol by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of TiO2 was investigated in complete darkness. The effects of amount of TiO2 and the combination of TiO2 addition with gas (air or oxygen) supply on the degradation kinetics of phenol and the formation of the reaction products were examined. The degradation rate of phenol increased with the amount of TiO2. As the dissolved oxygen concentration increased by supplying oxygen, the degradation rate of phenol also increased. A kinetic model for the disappearance of phenol was proposed. The model takes into account the OH radical formation by direct water degradation, indirect degradation by oxygen atom and indirect degradation by TiO2 catalysis. The calculated results explained well the fact that a higher amount of TiO2 and dissolved oxygen concentration gave faster disappearance rate.  相似文献
9.
ZnO films were grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition at temperatures of Tg=150300 °C. Epitaxial growth was obtained for Tg200 °C. The in-plane orientation of the ZnO unit cells was found to change from a no-twist one with respect to that of the substrate at Tg=200 °C to a 30°-twist one at Tg=300 °C. Absorption and photoluminescence were observed from the film grown at 150 °C, although there was no evidence of epitaxial growth. Films grown at Tg200 °C exhibited smoother surfaces. Moreover, all the films grown at Tg=150300 °C revealed acceptor-related emission peaks, indicating the incorporation of acceptors into the films. PACS 81.15.Gh; 78.55.Et; 78.66.Hf  相似文献
10.
Optimization of the surface texture for silicon carbide sliding in water   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Surface texturing has been recognized as an effective means to improve the tribological performances of sliding surfaces. Usually, generation additional hydrodynamic pressure to increase the load carrying capacity is regarded as the most significant effect of surface texture. In the case of silicon carbide sliding against identical material in water, the experimental results indicate that surface texture is also helpful to improve the running-in progress to smooth the contact surfaces, showing another reason to result in low friction. Based on the consideration of enhancing the generation of hydrodynamic pressure and improving running-in progress, a surface texture pattern, which was combined with large (circle, 350 μm in diameter) and small (rectangular, 40 μm in length) dimples, was designed to maximize the texture effect on the load carrying capacity of SiC surfaces sliding in water. The friction coefficient of such textured surface was evaluated and compared with that of untextured and those only with large or small dimples only. The friction reduction mechanisms of the patterns with different dimples in size are discussed.  相似文献
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