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1.
Biological surface science   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces.

Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue.

Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication are important for BioSS. However, there is also a need to adopt or develop new methods for studies of biointerfaces in the native, liquid state.

For the future it is likely that BioSS will have an even broader definition than above and include native interfaces, and that combinations of molecular (cell) biology and BioSS will contribute to the understanding of the “living state”.  相似文献

2.
Diffusion tensor mapping with MRI can noninvasively track neural connectivity and has great potential for neural scientific research and clinical applications. For each diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data acquisition scheme, the diffusion tensor is related to the measured apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) by a transformation matrix. With theoretical analysis we demonstrate that the noise performance of a DTI scheme is dependent on the condition number of the transformation matrix. To test the theoretical framework, we compared the noise performances of different DTI schemes using Monte-Carlo computer simulations and experimental DTI measurements. Both the simulation and the experimental results confirmed that the noise performances of different DTI schemes are significantly correlated with the condition number of the associated transformation matrices. We therefore applied numerical algorithms to optimize a DTI scheme by minimizing the condition number, hence improving the robustness to experimental noise. In the determination of anisotropic diffusion tensors with different orientations, MRI data acquisitions using a single optimum b value based on the mean diffusivity can produce ADC maps with regional differences in noise level. This will give rise to rotational variances of eigenvalues and anisotropy when diffusion tensor mapping is performed using a DTI scheme with a limited number of diffusion-weighting gradient directions. To reduce this type of artifact, a DTI scheme with not only a small condition number but also a large number of evenly distributed diffusion-weighting gradients in 3D is preferable.  相似文献
3.
发光玻璃在X射线实时成像系统中的应用   总被引:9,自引:2,他引:7  
介绍了以铽(Tb)激活的高密度发光玻璃和光导纤维发光玻璃的特性。它应用在X射线实时成像系统中,可大大改善空间分辨能力。用它做的转换屏比一般晶粒状荧光物质做的厚得多,特别适合用于高能X射线实时成像系统  相似文献
4.
On the generators of quantum dynamical semigroups   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
The notion of a quantum dynamical semigroup is defined using the concept of a completely positive map. An explicit form of a bounded generator of such a semigroup onB() is derived. This is a quantum analogue of the Lévy-Khinchin formula. As a result the general form of a large class of Markovian quantum-mechanical master equations is obtained.  相似文献
5.
Stereoscopic digital speckle photography offers a technique to measure object shapes and 3-D displacement fields in experimental mechanics. The system measures the displacement of a random white light speckle pattern, which somehow is present on the object surface, using digital correlation. This paper describes a general physical model for stereo imaging systems. A camera calibration algorithm, which takes the distortion in the lenses into account, is also presented and evaluated by real experiments. Standard deviations of small deformations as low as 1% of the pixel size for in-plane deformations and 6% of the pixel size for the out-of-plane component are reported. Using the calibration algorithm described, the main source of errors is random errors originating from the correlation algorithm.  相似文献
6.
Micro-cavity semiconductor lasers with controlled spontaneous emission   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
The principle and applications of quantum electrodynamics in microcavity semi-conductor lasers are reviewed. The coupling efficiency of spontaneous emission into a lasing mode and the spontaneous lifetime are modified by various microcavity structures. As a consequence of the increased coupling efficiency, those microcavity semi-conductor lasers are expected to feature a low threshold current, high quantum efficiency and broad modulation bandwidth. One remarkable result of the increased coupling efficiency is lasing without inversion. The other is intensity squeezing at any pump rate.  相似文献
7.
To reduce image artifacts in diffusion tensor imaging using single shot EPI, cardiac gating may be performed to prevent brain motion induced signal void in the DWI data. In this work the necessity of performing cardiac gating with single shot echo planar imaging has been explored using F statistics of the variance in DWI data. Peripheral measurement of the cardiac cycle has been employed because of its greater convenience, and hence use, compared to ECG gating. Four volunteers have been studied. Six different trigger delays have been evaluated in the range 18-500 ms relative the peripheral pulse wave. Brain motion was found significant in and inferior to the corpus callosum area. A trigger delay of 500 ms was found to be optimal. However, a long delay allows only for one slice per R-R interval. Therefore, a minimum trigger delay may be the best choice in terms of SNR per unit of experiment time.  相似文献
8.
A new strong erbium laser glass (SELG) based on a boro-alumo-phosphate composition is reported. We discuss the synthesis and chemical properties together with spectroscopic and thermo-mechanical data. The new glass composition shows excellent laser performance and withstands high-average power pump radiation. We present laser results at 1.54 μm from flashlamp and laser pumping. In tests with laser-diode pumped Q-switched Er-Yb microchip lasers, we have achieved up to 150 mW of average output power and generated 1.2 kW in peak power. Co2+:MgAl2O4 was here used as the saturable absorber. Received: 21 December 2001 / Revised version: 14 April 2002 / Published online: 8 August 2002  相似文献
9.
Carbon-nanotube films are very efficient cathodes for field-emission devices. This study presents a comprehensive comparison between structural, spectroscopic and field-emission properties of films of aligned and non-aligned multi-wall nanotubes (MWNTs) which are grown by thermal chemical vapour deposition. Three types of films are investigated: vertically aligned MWNTs with clean and coated nanotube side walls as well as non-aligned MWNT films. Raman spectra taken on the aligned MWNT films consist of many lines of first-, second- and third-order signals. Several lines are reported here for the first time for MWNTs. The presence of the surface coating leads to a decrease and broadening of the higher-order signals as well as an increase in the disorder-induced contributions in the first-order regime. The aligned MWNT films have excellent field-emission properties with very high emission current densities and low turn-on and threshold fields. The presence of a surface coating has no impact on the efficiency of the field-emission process. Films of non-aligned MWNTs show considerably reduced electron-emission current densities and larger critical fields. Received: 25 April 2001 / Accepted: 30 May 2001 / Published online: 25 July 2001  相似文献
10.
Entropy dissipation and moment production for the Boltzmann equation   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
LetH(f/M)=flog(f/M)dv be the relative entropy off and the Maxwellian with the same mass, momentum, and energy, and denote the corresponding entropy dissipation term in the Boltzmann equation byD(f)=Q(f,f) logf dv. An example is presented which shows that |D(f)/H(f/M)| can be arbitrarily small. This example is a sequence of isotropic functions, and the estimates are very explicitly given by a simple formula forD which holds for such functions. The paper also gives a simplified proof of the so-called Povzner inequality, which is a geometric inequality for the magnitudes of the velocities before and after an elastic collision. That inequality is then used to prove that f(v) |v|s dt<C(t), wheref is the solution of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation. HereC(t) is an explicitly given function dependings and the mass, energy, and entropy of the initial data.  相似文献
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