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1.
Securitizing and tranching longevity exposures   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
We consider the problem of optimally designing longevity risk transfers under asymmetric information. We focus on holders of longevity exposures that have superior knowledge of the underlying demographic risks, but are willing to take them off their balance sheets because of capital requirements. In equilibrium, they transfer longevity risk to uninformed agents at a cost, where the cost is represented by retention of part of the exposure and/or by a risk premium. We use a signalling model to quantify the effects of asymmetric information and emphasize how they compound with parameter uncertainty. We show how the cost of private information can be minimized by suitably tranching securitized cashflows, or, equivalently, by securitizing the exposure in exchange for an option on mortality rates. We also investigate the benefits of pooling several longevity exposures and the impact on tranching levels.  相似文献
2.
In the last decade a vast literature on stochastic mortality models has been developed. However, these models are often not directly applicable to insurance portfolios because:
(a) For insurers and pension funds it is more relevant to model mortality rates measured in insured amounts instead of measured in the number of policies.
(b) Often there is not enough insurance portfolio specific mortality data available to fit such stochastic mortality models reliably.
Therefore, in this paper a stochastic model is proposed for portfolio specific mortality experience. Combining this stochastic process with a stochastic country population mortality process leads to stochastic portfolio specific mortality rates, measured in insured amounts. The proposed stochastic process is applied to two insurance portfolios, and the impact on the Value at Risk for longevity risk is quantified. Furthermore, the model can be used to quantify the basis risk that remains when hedging portfolio specific mortality risk with instruments of which the payoff depends on population mortality rates.  相似文献
3.
Longevity risk and the Grim Reaper’s toxic tail: The survivor fan charts   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper uses survivor fan charts to illustrate the prospective density functions of future male survival rates. The fan charts are based on a version of the Cairns–Blake–Dowd model of male mortality that provides a good fit to recent mortality data for England and Wales. They indicate that although none of us can escape the Grim Reaper, survivorship uncertainty is greatest for males aged a little over 90, confirming that there exists a ‘toxic tail’ for those institutions, such as annuity and pension providers, which are obliged to make payments to them for as long as they live. We also find that taking account of uncertainty in the parameters of the underlying mortality model leads to major increases in estimates of the widths of the fan charts.  相似文献
4.
This paper looks at the development of dynamic hedging strategies for typical pension plan liabilities using longevity-linked hedging instruments. Progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of closed-form formulae for the valuation of mortality-linked liabilities and assets, and the consequent requirement for simulations within simulations. We propose the use of the probit function along with a Taylor expansion to approximate longevity-contingent values. This makes it possible to develop and implement computationally efficient, discrete-time delta hedging strategies using q-forwards as hedging instruments.The methods are tested using the model proposed by Cairns et al. (2006a) (CBD). We find that the probit approximations are generally very accurate, and that the discrete-time hedging strategy is very effective at reducing risk.  相似文献
5.
Conventionally, isolated (point-wise) prediction intervals are used to quantify the uncertainty in future mortality rates and other demographic quantities such as life expectancy. A pointwise interval reflects uncertainty in a variable at a single time point, but it does not account for any dynamic property of the time-series. As a result, in situations when the path or trajectory of future mortality rates is important, a band of pointwise intervals might lead to an invalid inference. To improve the communication of uncertainty, a simultaneous prediction band can be used. The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate how simultaneous prediction bands can be created for prevalent stochastic models, including the Cairns-Blake-Dowd and Lee-Carter models. The illustrations in this paper are based on mortality data from the general population of England and Wales.  相似文献
6.
This research proposes a mortality model with an age shift to project future mortality using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparisons of the proposed PCA model with the well-known models—the Lee-Carter model, the age-period-cohort model (Renshaw and Haberman, 2006), and the Cairns, Blake, and Dowd model—employ empirical studies of mortality data from six countries, two each from Asia, Europe, and North America. The mortality data come from the human mortality database and span the period 1970-2005. The proposed PCA model produces smaller prediction errors for almost all illustrated countries in its mean absolute percentage error. To demonstrate longevity risk in annuity pricing, we use the proposed PCA model to project future mortality rates and analyze the underestimated ratio of annuity price for whole life annuity and deferred whole life annuity product respectively. The effect of model risk on annuity pricing is also investigated by comparing the results from the proposed PCA model with those from the LC model. The findings can benefit actuaries in their efforts to deal with longevity risk in pricing and valuation.  相似文献
7.
This paper discusses the choice of an appropriate longevity index to track the improvements in mortality in industrialized countries. Period life expectancies computed from national life tables turn out to be efficient in this context. A detailed analysis of the predictive distribution of this longevity index is performed in the Lee–Carter model where the period life expectancy is just a functional of the underlying time index.  相似文献
8.
We consider a quadratic stochastic intensity model with a Gaussian autoregressive factor, derive explicit formulas for predictive mortality tables and recursive updating formulas are also provided. We also explain how to use appropriately the Kalman filter to estimate the parameters of the model and to approximate the values of the underlying factor. This methodology is applied to French human mortality tables.  相似文献
9.
This paper addresses the modelling of human mortality by the aid of doubly stochastic processes with an intensity driven by a positive Lévy process. We focus on intensities having a mean reverting stochastic component. Furthermore, driving Lévy processes are pure jump processes belonging to the class of α-stable subordinators. In this setting, expressions of survival probabilities are inferred, the pricing is discussed and numerical applications to actuarial valuations are proposed.  相似文献
10.
以我国颁布的3套保险行业经验生命表为基础,结合1995-2017年国家统计局发布的《中国统计年鉴》中的死亡率数据,首先分析了中国全年龄人口数据死亡率动静态变动特点,其次比较了LC,CBD和APC 3种模型对中国死亡率数据的拟合优劣,最后采用最优APC模型度量了不同生命表下的长寿风险.死亡率的动态变化会导致以经验生命表为依据的年金产品定价出现偏差,增加养老金管理机构的承保风险.  相似文献
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