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1.
The chromatographic separation of traditional Chinese medicines is still a highly challenging task in analytical science with respect to its hundreds and thousands of chemical compounds, while increase of separation efficiency can greatly improve the separation power of chromatographic column for traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, 13 bioactive components in HuanglianShangqing pill were selected as an index to optimize the separation conditions and evaluate the system suitability of three commercially available columns packed with 1.8, 3.5, and 5.0 μm particles. The chromatographic separations were obtained by the most appropriate Eclipse Plus C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) within 45 min using gradient elution with aqueous‐ammonium acetate (10 mmol/L, pH 5.0) and acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and an operating temperature of 30°C. The quality of HuanglianShangqing pill was assessed through combining simultaneous quantification of 13 compounds with fingerprint analysis. For the qualitative analysis, mass spectrometry was used to confirm the 13 compounds. All the validation data conformed to the acceptable requirements. For the fingerprint analysis, 32 peaks were selected as the common peaks at 254 nm to evaluate the similarities among HuanglianShangqing pills obtained from ten manufacturers.  相似文献   
2.
The power extraction efficiency improvement of a fully-activated flapping foil with the help of an auxiliary rotating foil is numerically examined in this work. A NACA0015 airfoil is placed in a two-dimensional laminar flow and synchronously performs the imposed pitching and plunging motions. An auxiliary smaller foil, which rotates about its center, is arranged below the flapping foil. As a consequence, the vortex interaction between the flapping foil and the rotating foil occurs. At a Reynolds number of 1100 and the position of the pitching axis at one-third chord, the effects of the distance between the flapping foil and the auxiliary foil, the phase difference between the rotating motion and the flapping motion as well as the frequency of flapping motion on the power extraction performance are systematically investigated. It is found that compared to the single flapping foil, the efficiency of power extraction for the flapping foil with an auxiliary device can be improved. Based on the numerical analysis, it is indicated that the enhanced plunging contribution, which is caused by the increased lift force owing to the vortex interaction, directly helps the efficiency improvement.  相似文献   
3.
In this paper we study the thermodynamic efficiency of thermoelectric generators in which the heat transport is driven by phonons and electrons. It is assumed that the phonon temperature and the electron temperature are different, and that the electric-charge density is nonuniform. The mean temperature is defined by observing that the internal energy of the system is the same either in the presence of two temperatures, or of one temperature. In steady states, we determine the influence of the gradients of the mean temperature and of the electric-charge density on the theoretical values of the thermoelectric efficiency. The physical conditions under which such efficiency is optimal are determined as well.  相似文献   
4.
This paper studies the importance of corrections that account for the presence of walls on the forces acting on nanoparticles during their transport in microchannels. Theoretical and experimental investigations have reported anisotropic and hindered motion of nanoparticles near a microchannel wall. To investigate the influence of the near-wall effects, various conditions were examined. In particular, computer simulations were performed with and without the near-wall correction of forces. The corresponding capture efficiency and the average penetration of the captured nanoparticles were compared, and the importance of the near-wall corrections was assessed. Effects were evaluated for the nanoparticle diameter, the channel width, the channel length, and the pressure gradient. The results indicate that the inclusion of wall effects is crucial for the analysis of nanoparticle transport in microchannels.  相似文献   
5.
Knowledge of the major effects governing desorption/ionization efficiency is required for the development and application of ambient mass spectrometry. Although all triacylglycerols (TAG) have the same favorable protonation and cationization sites, their desorption/ionization efficiencies can vary dramatically during easy ambient sonic‐spray ionization because of structural differences in the carbon chain. To quantify this somewhat surprising and drastic effect, we have performed a systematic investigation of desorption/ionization efficiencies as a function of unsaturation and length for TAG as well as for diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols and several phospholipids (PL). Affinities for Na+ as a function of unsaturation level have also been assayed via comprehensive metadynamics calculations to understand the influence of this phenomenon on the ionization efficiency. The results suggest that dipole–dipole interactions within a carbon chain tuned by unsaturation sites govern ionization efficiency of TAG and PL. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
In this study, alleviation of ion suppression effect in sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (SSI‐MS) was investigated. Ion suppression effect was firstly compared between electrospray ionization (ESI) and conventional SSI, and more severe ion suppression effect was observed with SSI. Ion suppression effect of SSI was also found difficult to be alleviated by simply optimizing major parameters. Alternatively, we found that with the assistance of an alternating current (AC) voltage with low amplitude, the ion suppression effect was greatly alleviated (comparable with conventional ESI). That AC voltage was applied outside the SSI spray tip, and no direct contact between the electrode and spray solution was necessary. Besides the alleviation of the ion suppression effect, this newly‐developed method, termed as induced electrosonic spray ionization (IESSI), appeared to preserve similar charge state distribution with SSI for protonated cytochrome c, hemoglobin, and bradykinin. IESSI could also obtain significantly improved ion intensities (~1000‐fold over conventional SSI). In addition, tolerance of concentrated salts for IESSI‐MS was investigated through the analysis of cytochrome c in the presence of concentrated sodium chloride (NaCl) or ammonium acetate (NH4OAc). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
The overall kinetic performance of three production columns (2.1 mm × 100 mm format) packed with 1.6 μm superficially porous CORTECS‐C18+ particles was assessed on a low‐dispersive I‐class ACQUITY instrument. The values of their minimum intrinsic reduced plate heights (hmin = 1.42, 1.57, and 1.75) were measured at room temperature (295 K) for a small molecule (naphthalene) with an acetonitrile/water eluent mixture (75:25, v/v). These narrow‐bore columns provide an average intrinsic efficiency of 395 000 plates per meter. The gradient separation of 14 small molecules shows that these columns have a peak capacity about 25% larger than similar ones packed with fully porous BEH‐C18 particles (1.7 μm) or shorter (50 mm) columns packed with smaller core–shell particles (1.3 μm) operated under very high pressure (>1000 bar) for steep gradient elution (analysis time 80 s). In contrast, because their permeabilities are lower than those of columns packed with larger core–shell particles, their peak capacities are 25% smaller than those of narrow‐bore columns packed with standard 2.7 μm core–shell particles.  相似文献   
8.
对黄土、砂砾石和花岗岩等几种不同介质中的地下爆炸实验进行了地表速度测量,利用实测数据 获得爆炸源频谱以及以折合速度势低频稳态值表示的地震耦合强度。实验结果表明,对于相同当量、相当比 例埋深下的地下爆炸,地震耦合强度和源区介质特性有着强烈的依赖关系,其中介质强度是影响地震耦合效 率的最主要因素,而介质的干孔隙率和水饱和度也是影响地震耦合效率的重要因素。考察了M.D.Denny等 提出的经验公式在估算100kg级当量地下爆炸地震耦合强度的适用性和局限性。  相似文献   
9.
Three-stage strategies (ladder rule, few state model (FSM), and parallelization) were proposed to improve the computational efficiency of the sum-over-states (SOS) model in nonlinear optics (NLO) modeling. Ladder rule decomposes NLO coefficients of the nth state into the (n-1)th term and the contribution from the (n-1)th to the nth state without loss of rigor in theory. FSM singles out the states with substantial contribution to NLO. Those strategies are universal to all (including revised and simplified) SOS models. The computing cost reduces roughly to C/(n(i-1)) (C is a constant and i is the rank (order) of the NLO coefficients).  相似文献   
10.
We comment on the paper [Song et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2009, 30, 399]. and discuss the efficiency of the orbital optimization and gradient evaluation in the Valence Bond Self Consistent Field (VBSCF) method. We note that Song et al. neglect to properly reference Broer et al., who published an algorithm [Broer and Nieuwpoort, Theor. Chim. Acta 1988, 73, 405] to use a Fock matrix to compute a matrix element between two different determinants, which can be used for an orbital optimization. Further, Song et al. publish a misleading comparison with our VBSCF algorithm [Dijkstra and van Lenthe, J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 2100; van Lenthe et al., Mol. Phys. 1991, 73, 1159] to enable them to favorably compare their algorithm with ours. We give detail timings in terms of different orbital types in the calculation and actual timings for the example cases. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
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