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1.
随机贴现因子下的纯保费精算   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
在贴现因子为随机的条件下,给出终身寿险纯保费的精算公式.  相似文献
2.
Discount utility is facilitated to scrutinize human decision behaviors for different points in time under the consideration of time preference. Recent studies are extended from two basic models, which are the exponential and the hyperbolic discount models, and the more popular hyperbolic discount model is well recognized for resolving the effects of preference reversal and is less steeply discounting than the exponential discount model. However, to enhance the capability of explaining intertemporal decision making behavior, an anticipative hyperbolic discount utility model was proposed which revised the conventional hyperbolic discount utility by introducing the anticipative parameters under the consideration of anticipation of future gains or losses. An empirical investigation was employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed anticipative hyperbolic discounting utility model, which was able to empirically go beyond the traditional hyperbolic discounting utility model. Also, the proposed anticipative hyperbolic model is capable of dealing with the anomalies of preference reverse and framing effects.  相似文献
3.
This paper obtains the uniform estimate for maximum of sums of independent and heavy-tailed random variables with nonnegative random weights,which can be arbi- trarily dependent of each other.Then the applications to ruin probabilities in a discrete time risk model with dependent stochastic returns are considered.  相似文献
4.
Many companies maximize the present value of profit over some time horizon. If the company's problem is an autonomous control problem, then present value equals the Hamiltonian's decrease over the time horizon divided by the discount factor.  相似文献
5.
In this paper, we study the stability of two types of Invariant Capital Stocks which are shown to exist in a two-dimensional planning model. It is shown that, for each type of Invariant Capital Stock, there is a critical discount factor such that when the discount factor falls below it, the corresponding Invariant Capital Stock will become unstable.  相似文献
6.
In this paper, the effect on values and optimal strategies of perturbations of game parameters (payoff function, transition probability function, and discount factor) is studied for the class of zero-sum games in normal form and for the class of stationary, discounted, two-person, zero-sum stochastic games.A main result is that, under certain conditions, the value depends on these parameters in a pointwise Lipschitz continuous way and that the sets of -optimal strategies for both players are upper semicontinuous multifunctions of the game parameters.Extensions to general-sum games and nonstationary stochastic games are also indicated.  相似文献
7.
This paper deals with discrete-time Markov decision processes with state-dependent discount factors and unbounded rewards/costs. Under general conditions, we develop an iteration algorithm for computing the optimal value function, and also prove the existence of optimal stationary policies. Furthermore, we illustrate our results with a cash-balance model.  相似文献
8.
The Esscher transform is an important tool in actuarial science. Since the pioneering work of Gerber and Shiu (1994), the use of the Esscher transform for option valuation has also been investigated extensively. However, the relationships between the asset pricing model based on the Esscher transform and some fundamental equilibrium-based asset pricing models, such as consumption-based models, have so far not been well-explored. In this paper, we attempt to bridge the gap between consumption-based models and asset pricing models based on Esscher-type transformations in a discrete-time setting. Based on certain assumptions for the distributions of asset returns, changes in aggregate consumptions and returns on the market portfolio, we construct pricing measures that are consistent with those arising from Esscher-type transformations. Explicit relationships between the market price of risk, and the risk preference parameters are derived for some particular cases.  相似文献
9.
We consider a repeated game where at each stage players simultaneously choose one of the two rooms. The players who choose the less crowded room are rewarded with one euro. The players in the same room do not recognize each other, and between the stages only the current majority room is publicly announced, hence the game has imperfect public monitoring. An undiscounted version of this game was considered by Renault et al. [Renault, J., Scarlatti, S., Scarsini, M., 2005. A folk theorem for minority games. Games Econom. Behav. 53 (2), 208–230], who proved a folk theorem. Here we consider a discounted version and a finitely repeated version of the game, and we strengthen our previous result by showing that the set of equilibrium payoffs Hausdorff-converges to the feasible set as either the discount factor goes to one or the number of repetition goes to infinity. We show that the set of public equilibria for this game is strictly smaller than the set of private equilibria.  相似文献
10.
The high value of the implicit option to choose a retirement date at which interest rates are particularly high and life annuities relatively cheap, leads to the possibility to introduce regret aversion in the retirement investment decision of defined contribution plan participants. As a remedy for regret aversion in retirement investment decisions, this paper develops and prices a lookback option on a life annuity contract. We determine a closed-form option value under the restriction that the option holder invests risklessly during the time to maturity of the option and without the guarantee that the exact amount of retirement wealth is converted into a life annuity at retirement. Thereafter the investment restriction is relaxed and the guarantee of exact conversion is imposed and the option is priced via Monte Carlo simulations in an economic environment with a stochastic discount factor. Option price sensitivities are determined via the pricing of alternative options. We find that the price of a lookback option, with a maturity of three years, amounts to 8%–9% of the wealth at the option issuance date. The option price is highly sensitive to the exercise price of the option, i.e. pricing alternative options (e.g. Asian) substantially lowers the price. Time to maturity and interest rate volatility are other important option price drivers. Asset allocation decisions and initial interest rates hardly affect the option price.  相似文献
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