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1.
We examine two formulations for the differential surface excitation parameter (DSEP): one provided by Tung et al. and the other given by the Chen–Kwei position‐dependent differential inverse inelastic mean free path integrated over the electron trajectory. We demonstrate that the latter converges to the former provided that the dielectric function of the solid does not depend on the momentum transfer or it depends on just the momentum transfer component parallel to the surface. Tung's DSEP represents therefore an approximation to the Chen–Kwei DSEP calculated for a dielectric function with no restrictions on the momentum dependence. The approximation is shown to work in the limit of small momentum transfer and to imply an error of 4%–5% for electrons traveling through the solid with energy E = 1 keV. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
We propose a scheme for a topological insulator field effect transistor. The idea is based on the gate voltage control of the Dirac fermions in a ferromagnetic topological insulator channel with perpendicular magnetization connecting to two metallic topological insulator leads. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed device displays a switching effect with high on/off current ratio and a negative differential conductance with a good peak to valley ratio.  相似文献   
3.
We report the observation of negative differential resistance (NDR) in solution synthesized ZnO nanorod. The ZnO nanorod was fabricated as a two terminal planar device using lithographically patterned Au electrodes. The measured current–voltage response of the device has shown a negative differential resistance behavior. The peak-to-valley current ratio of the NDR is found to be greater than 4. The mechanism of this observed NDR effect has been explained based on charge trapping and de-trapping at the nanoscale contacts. It is the first observation of negative differential resistance effect in solution synthesized ZnO nanorod.  相似文献   
4.
《Current Applied Physics》2015,15(7):805-810
The acoustic and thermal properties of the liquid–glass transitions of propylene glycol and its oligomers, poly (propylene glycol)s, were studied by temperature modulated DSC and Brillouin scattering. The fragility indices were determined from Angell plots using the observed modulation frequency dependence of the complex heat capacity. The variation in the glass transition temperatures is discussed on the basis of the free volume theory. The relaxation time of the structural relaxation obeys the Vogel–Fulcher law, and its high frequency end is in good agreement with the result of the dielectric measurement in the literature. The correlation between the observed thermal expansion coefficients and the glass transition temperature is discussed based on the free volume theory. The sound velocity and attenuation were accurately determined as a function of the temperature by Brillouin scattering by combination with the refractive index measurement. The relaxation dynamics were discussed by considering the relaxation from segmental motions. All of these physical properties were discussed based on the third-order anharmonicity and the Grüneisen parameter.  相似文献   
5.
In this paper, we obtain some new Lyapunov‐type inequalities for a class of even‐order linear differential equations, the results are new and generalize and improve some early results in this field.  相似文献   
6.
A fast and simple method for the identification of nonlinear constitutive functions in scalar convection–diffusion equations is presented. No a priori information is needed on the form of the constitutive functions, which are obtained as continuous piecewise affine functions. Accurate and frequent measurements in space and time are required. Synthetic data of batch sedimentation of particles in a liquid and traffic flow are chosen as examples where a convective flux function and a function modelling compression are identified. Real data should first undergo a denoising procedure, which is also presented. It consists of a sequence of convex optimization problems, whose constraints originate from fundamental physical properties. The methodology is applied on data from a batch sedimentation experiment of activated sludge in wastewater treatment.  相似文献   
7.
The paper is concerned with a reduced SIR model for migrant workers. By using differential inequality technique and a novel argument, we derive a set of conditions to ensure that the endemic equilibrium of the model is globally exponentially stable. The obtained results complement with some existing ones. We also use numerical simulations to demonstrate the theoretical results.  相似文献   
8.
We describe discrete maximal surfaces with singularities in 3-dimensional Minkowski space and give a Weierstrass type representation for them. In the smooth case, maximal surfaces (spacelike surfaces with mean curvature identically 0) in Minkowski 3-space generally have certain singularities. We give a criterion that naturally describes the “singular set” for discrete maximal surfaces, including a classification of the various types of singularities that are possible in the discrete case.  相似文献   
9.
The inversion of the particle size distribution from electrical mobility measurements is analyzed. Three different methods are adapted for a dot-matrix approach to the problem, especially for non-square or singular matrices, and applied to electrical mobility measurements from fixed or scanning voltages. Multiply charged particles, diffusion losses, arbitrary voltage steps and noise were considered, which results in non-adjoining and overlapping transfer functions. The individual contribution of the transfer functions in each size interval was geometrically estimated, which requires only its characteristic mobilities. The methodology is applied to mobility measurements from particles charged with unipolar and bipolar chargers. However, the method can be extrapolated to any charging method with a defined charge distribution, and retrieval of the singly charged particle distribution and mean charge from a tandem differential mobility analysis configuration was successfully demonstrated.  相似文献   
10.
Laguerre–Hahn families on the real line are characterized in terms of second-order differential equations with matrix coefficients for vectors involving the orthogonal polynomials and their associated polynomials, as well as in terms of second-order differential equation for the functions of the second kind. Some characterizations of the classical families are derived.  相似文献   
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