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The aim of this paper is to characterize the Multivariate Gauss-Markoff model (MGM) as in (2.1) with singular covariance matrix and missing values. MGMDP2 model and completed MGMDP2Q model are obtained by three transformations D, P and Q (cf. (3.21)) of MGM. The unified theory of estimation (Rao, 1973) which is of interest with respect to MGM has been used.The characterization is reached by estimation of parameters: scalar 2 and linear combination as in (4.8), (4.6), (4.7) as well as by the model of the form (5.1) (cf. Th. 5.1). Moreover, testing linear hypothesis in the available model MGMDP2 by test function F as in (6.3) and (6.4) is considered.It is known (Oktaba 1992) that ten quantities in models MGMDP2, and MGMDP2Q are identical (invariant). They permit to say that formulas for estimation and testing in both models are identical (Oktaba et al., 1988, Baksalary and Kala, 1981, Drygas, 1983).An algorithm and the UMGMBO program for calculations concerning estimation and testing in MGM have been presented by Oktaba and Osypiuk (1993).  相似文献
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A model for the selection process of research and development (R&D) projects belonging to some common area and submitted to a funding agency is presented. Every project is evaluated, the result of this procedure providing the agency with some useful information about the distribution of the project's payoff. The uncertainty due to the unknown perspectives of the whole area of R&D is incorporated in a Bayesian way, so that the agency learns about the area value from the projects already handled. After specifying the model assumptions, adaptive dynamic programming techniques are applied to develop an optimal funding strategy for a given number of submitted projects. Some qualitative properties of the optimal strategy are derived, and the asymptotical behavior of the maximum expected reward is determined.  相似文献
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借助博弈论的思想和方法,以开平碉楼与村落为例,对村落遗产地旅游开发中的核心利益相关者为实现各自利益诉求所实施的博弈行为进行分析,建立两阶段博弈模型,试图找出博弈均衡,通过典型的博弈关系来剖析他们之间的相互关系和作用机制,从而揭示村落遗产地旅游开发模式的形成机理.  相似文献
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科学评价村落遗产地旅游开发模式,监测其实施效果,对村落遗产地旅游开发的状况和水平作出合理评定,既能全面深入地挖掘村落遗产地旅游开发模式蕴涵的内涵,又能诊断出旅游开发中存在的优势与不足,对促进村落遗产地旅游业可持续发展具有重要的实践意义.在文献研究和专家调查的基础上,构建村落遗产地政府主导开发模式评价指标体系,以开平碉楼与村落为例,采用多层次模糊综合评判法对村落遗产地政府主导开发模式进行定量评价,以期为当地旅游行政管理部门科学制定决策提供理论依据.  相似文献
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北京市和上海市的文化创意产业发展迅速,已经成为支柱性产业.北京形成文化创意产业发展的"一核、一带、两轴、多中心"的空间发展格局,而上海则形成"一轴、一带、两河、多圈"的空间格局.北京以京派文化、首都文化等为基础,形成"3+3+X"的文化创意产业发展模式,而上海以沪派文化、国际经济中心等为基础,形成"5+3+3"的文化创意产业发展模式.北京市和上海市都已经通过多元投融资渠道,在园区发展模式上由自发型走向政府导向型模式.  相似文献
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Land transformation from grassland to cropland in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) has become a growing concern among many stakeholders. A growing body of work has sought to determine the amount and rate of land use change with less emphasis on the systemic structures or feedback processes of land use decisions. This paper presents the development of a system dynamics simulation model to integrate ecological, economic, and social components influencing land use decisions, including cattle ranching, cropland production, rural communities, land quality, and public policies. Evaluation indicated that the model satisfactorily predicted historical land, agricultural commodity, and rural community data from the model structure. Reference modes for key variables, including the farmland area, were characterized by a bias correction of 0.999, root mean squared error of prediction of 0.053, R2 of 0.921, and concordance correlation coefficient of 0.0959. The model was robust under extreme and varying sensitivity tests, as well as adequately predicting land use under changing system context. The model's major contributions were the inclusion of decision‐making feedbacks from economic and social signals with connectivity to land quality and elasticity values that drive land transformation. Limitations include lack of spatial input and output capabilities useful for visual interfacing.  相似文献
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