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在异质性人力资本的条件下,把劳动生产率增长分解为效率的改变、技术改变、人力资本及物质资本.用核密度函数及回归方法分别对劳动生产率增长及收敛性进行了研究.结果表明:(1)劳动生产率分布由单峰变为多峰,其在初级与高级人力资本下的原因分别为技术改变、物质资本与人力资本;(2)全国的劳动生产率是β收敛的,而西部并不存在β收敛;(3)效率改变及技术改变促进了劳动生产率的发散,而人力资本积累及物质资本积累上促进了劳动生产率的收敛.  相似文献
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In this paper we discuss two Newton-type algorithms for solving economic models. The models are preprocessed by reordering the equations in order to minimize the dimension of the simultaneous block. The solution algorithms are then applied to this block. The algorithms evaluate numerically, as required, selected columns of the Jacobian of the simultaneous part. Provisions also exist for similar systems to be solved, if possible, without actually reinitialising the Jacobian. One of the algorithms also uses the Broyden update to improve the Jacobian. Global convergence is maintained by an Armijo-type stepsize strategy.The global and local convergence of the quasi-Newton algorithm is discussed. A novel result is established for convergence under relaxed descent directions and relating the achievement of unit stepsizes to the accuracy of the Jacobian approximation. Furthermore, a simple derivation of the Dennis-Moré characterisation of the Q-superlinear convergence rate is given.The model equation reordering algorithm is also described. The model is reordered to define heart and loop variables. This is also applied recursively to the subgraph formed by the loop variables to reduce the total number of above diagonal elements in the Jacobian of the complete system. The extension of the solution algorithms to consistent expectations are discussed. The algorithms are compared with Gauss-Seidel SOR algorithms using the USA and Spanish models of the OECD Interlink system.  相似文献
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