首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   10968篇
  免费   2098篇
  国内免费   67篇
化学   2600篇
晶体学   39篇
力学   794篇
综合类   233篇
数学   4961篇
物理学   4506篇
  2023年   76篇
  2022年   176篇
  2021年   247篇
  2020年   249篇
  2019年   216篇
  2018年   222篇
  2017年   272篇
  2016年   322篇
  2015年   255篇
  2014年   555篇
  2013年   787篇
  2012年   559篇
  2011年   673篇
  2010年   556篇
  2009年   674篇
  2008年   788篇
  2007年   737篇
  2006年   649篇
  2005年   604篇
  2004年   492篇
  2003年   467篇
  2002年   443篇
  2001年   329篇
  2000年   306篇
  1999年   299篇
  1998年   291篇
  1997年   226篇
  1996年   185篇
  1995年   184篇
  1994年   190篇
  1993年   120篇
  1992年   119篇
  1991年   95篇
  1990年   69篇
  1989年   87篇
  1988年   73篇
  1987年   68篇
  1986年   47篇
  1985年   79篇
  1984年   53篇
  1983年   34篇
  1982年   50篇
  1981年   22篇
  1980年   24篇
  1979年   32篇
  1978年   33篇
  1977年   21篇
  1976年   20篇
  1975年   11篇
  1973年   17篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
With screening methods in the legal medicine drugs were often detected in autopsy material. In this study the antiarrhythmic and the local anesthetic drug lidocaine could be proved in fifty‐one cases and determined in different autopsy materials. For the first time the comparison of so many distribution patterns of lidocaine in human compartments was possible. A liquid‐liquid extraction procedure, a standard addition method and LC/MS/MS were used for analytics. The measured concentrations in blood were in the therapeutic range or lower. The time between lidocaine application and death was given in twenty‐nine cases. These data were very helpful to estimate and interpret the distribution process of lidocaine between application and death. This time exerted a crucial influence on the distribution of lidocaine in the compartments. Most of the intravenous applicated lidocaine was found in heart blood after a very short time of distribution. Afterwards the highest concentrations were measured in brain. Later the highest concentration was found in the kidney samples or in urine. If the time between lidocaine application and death is known, the results of this study can be used to deepen the knowledge of its pharmacokinetics. If this time is unknown, the circumstances and the causes of death can be better explained. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
This study investigated vitamin K1 (VK1) distribution following intravenous vitamin K1–fat emulsion (VK1–FE) administration and compared it with that after VK1 injection. Rats were intravenously injected with VK1–FE or VK1. The organ and tissue VK1 concentrations were determined using high‐performance liquid chromatography method at 0.5, 2 and 4 h to determine distribution, equilibrium and elimination phases, respectively. In the VK1–FE group, the plasma, heart and spleen VK1 concentrations decreased over time. However, other organs like liver, lung, kidney, muscle and testis, reached peak VK1 concentrations at 2 h. In the VK1 injection group, the liver VK1 concentrations were significantly higher than those in other organs at the three time points. However, VK1 concentrations in the other organs peaked at 2 h. In addition, in VK1–FE group, the heart, spleen and lung VK1 concentrations were significantly higher than those in the VK1 injection group at the three time points, and the liver VK1 concentration was significantly higher than that in the VK1 injection group at 4 h. The VK1 amount was greatest in the liver compared with the other organs. Thus, the liver is the primary organ for VK1 distribution. The distribution of VK1 is more rapid when injected as VK1–FE than as VK1. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict the viscoelastic material functions of a vinyl ester (VE) polymer with variations in its experimentally obtained material properties under combined isothermal and mechanical loading. Short-term tensile creep experiments were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of the VE polymer, with 10 replicates for each test configuration. The measured creep strain versus time responses were used to determine the creep compliances using the generalized viscoelastic constitutive equation with a Prony series representation. The variation in the creep compliances of a VE polymer was described by formulating the probability density functions (PDFs) and the corresponding cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the creep compliances using a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Both Weibull scale and shape parameters of the creep compliance distributions were shown to be time and temperature dependent. Two-dimensional quadratic Lagrange interpolation functions were used to characterize the Weibull parameters to obtain the PDFs and, subsequently, the CDFs of the creep compliances for the complete design temperature range during steady state creep. At each test temperature, creep compliance curves were obtained for constant CDF values and compared with the experimental data. The predicted creep compliances of the selected VE polymer in the design space are in good agreement with the experimental data for all three test temperatures.  相似文献   
4.
5.
In the paper, a problem of electrostatics for charge distribution on a conductor surface is analytically solved for three new particular cases of conducting surfaces with complicated shape and specified value of electrostatic potential. The exact analytical expressions for surface charge density for the bodies are obtained. All the solutions are represented in a clear view of 3D graphs. It is shown that the proposed method of electrostatic problem for conductors allows to obtain infinitely many numerical solutions for the problem but only several special cases can be solved analytically.  相似文献   
6.
In order to improve the particle collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), a transverse plate ESP with bipolar discharge electrodes is proposed. The simulations of the velocity distribution have shown that when the inlet velocity is 1 m/s, within the range of 40 mm from electrode plate, the average velocities of windward side and leeward side are less than 0.7 m/s and 0.3 m/s respectively. It is clear that the velocity near the collection electrode plate of this bipolar ESP is much lower than that of the ordinary ESP at the same inlet velocity. This low velocity can lead to higher efficiency for fine dust collection due to the less dust re-entrainment in ESP. It is also found that the average velocities are getting lower when the distance between plates electrodes are greater than 150 mm in accordance with the simulations. The voltage current characteristics of the bipolar ESP are superior to the ordinary ESP. The pressure drop of the bipolar ESP is about 30% higher than that of the ordinary one. The dust penetration of the bipolar ESP is about 54% less than that of the ordinary ESP when the sintering dust with 25.405 μm mass median diameter is used as the test particulate under the condition of the electric field from 2.1 kV/cm to 3.2 kV/cm and the velocity from 1.0 m/s to 1.5 m/s.  相似文献   
7.
《Current Applied Physics》2015,15(9):1036-1041
Spatial distributions of the effective electron temperature (Teff) and plasma potential were studied from the measurement of an electron energy probability function in a side type ferrite-core inductively coupled plasma with an argon–helium mixture. As the helium gas was diluted at the fixed total gas pressure of 5 mTorr in an argon discharge, the distribution of the plasma density and plasma potential changed from a concave to a flat profile, and finally became a convex profile, while all spatial profiles of Teff were hollow shapes with helium dilution in the argon discharge. This evolution of the plasma potential with helium gas could be explained by the increased energy relaxation length (λε), indicating the transition of electron kinetics from local to non-local kinetics.  相似文献   
8.
Low molecular weight polyisobutylenes (PIB) with chlorine, olefin and succinic acid end‐groups were studied using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART‐MS). To facilitate the adduct ion formation under DART conditions, NH4Cl as an auxiliary reagent was deposited onto the PIB surface. It was found that chlorinated adduct ions of olefin and chlorine telechelic PIBs, i.e. [M + Cl]? up to m/z 1100, and the deprotonated polyisobutylene succinic acid [M? H]? were formed as observed in the negative ion mode. In the positive ion mode formation of [M + NH4]+, adduct ions were detected. In the tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of [M + Cl]?, product ions were absent, suggesting a simple dissociation of the precursor [M + Cl]? into a Cl? ion and a neutral M without fragmentation of the PIB backbones. However, structurally important product ions were produced from the corresponding [M + NH4]+ ions, allowing us to obtain valuable information on the arm‐length distributions of the PIBs containing aromatic initiator moiety. In addition, a model was developed to interpret the oligomer distributions and the number average molecular weights observed in DART‐MS for PIBs and other polymers of low molecular weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
Cinnamaldehyde (CA), an active ingredient isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Cinnamomi, has a wide range of bioactivities. To clarify the distribution characteristics of CA, a selective and sensitive method utilizing gas chromatography–mass spetrometry was initially developed for simultaneously determining the concentration of CA and its metabolite cinnamyl alcohol in rat tissues. Selected ion masses of m/z 131, 105 and 92 were chosen, and separation of the analytes was performed on a DB‐5 ms (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 µm, thickness) capillary column by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The calibration curves demonstrated good linearity and reproducibility over the range of 20–2000 and 20–4000 ng/mL for various tissue samples. Recoveries ranged from 86.8 to 107.5%, while intra‐ and interday relative standard deviations were all <11.3%. The analysis method was successfully applied in tissue distribution studies for CA and cinnamyl alcohol. As CA and cinnamyl alcohol may inter‐convert to one another, simultaneous determination of both analytes provides a comparative and accurate data for tissue study. The concentrations of CA and cinnamyl alcohol remaining in spleen were the highest among the main organs, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain. In addition, there was no long‐term accumulation of CA in rat tissues. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
Neopanaxadiol (NPD), a major ginsenoside in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), was reported to have neuroprotective effect. In this study, a method of ultra‐performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF‐MS) was developed and validated for quantitative analysis of NPD in tissues, urine and feces, using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to isolate NPD from different biological samples, and chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax Stable Bond C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 µm) column with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. All standard calibration curves were linear (all r2 > 0.995) within the test range. After oral administration, NPD was extensively distributed to most of the tissues without long‐term accumulation. The higher levels were observed in stomach and intestine, followed by kidney and liver. Approximately 64.56 ± 20.32% of administered dose in feces and 0.0233 ± 0.0356% in urine were found within 96 h, which indicated that the major elimination route was fecal excretion. This analytical method was applied to the study of NPD distribution and excretion in rats after oral intake for the first time. The results we found here are helpful for us to understand the pharmacological effects of NPD, as well as its toxicity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号