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1.
Two new abietane‐type diterpenoids, named triptobenzene R ( 1 ) and triptobenzene S ( 2 ), together with three known abietane‐type diterpenoids, triptophenolide ( 3 ), triptonodiol ( 4 ), and triptonoterpene methyl ether ( 5 ), were isolated from the roots of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook . f. Their structures and relative configurations were established by detailed spectral studies, including 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR (HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), and HR‐ESI‐TOF‐MS, and by comparison with published data. Their absolute configurations were assigned by the CD technique, applied for the first time to abietane diterpenes from Tripterygium wilfordii. Compound 2 is the first abietane‐type norditerpenoid isolated from the genus Tripterygium.  相似文献   
2.
To investigate the correlation between the wavelength dependence of ionization threshold fluence of target molecule in matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization by infrared (IR) laser and the IR absorption spectrum of matrix molecule, we have analyzed the IR absorption spectra of four matrix molecules using density functional theory and correlated ab initio molecular orbital method. The calculated IR absorption spectra of the isolated molecules showed more qualitative correlation with the wavelength dependence of ionization threshold fluence than those of the solid state structures. We can consider that a portion of matrix molecules lost the ordered crystal structure and that the transition to the diluted or isolated state occurred at the early process of IR laser irradiation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
3.
Two new spirostanol saponins, namely elephanosides G and H ( 1 and 2 , resp.) were isolated from the leaves of Yucca elephantipes (Agavaceae), together with the two known furostanol saponins 3 and 4 and the six known flavonoid O‐ and C‐glycosides 5 – 10 . The new structures were elucidated as (3β,25S)‐spirost‐5‐en‐3‐yl Oβ‐D ‐glucopyranosyl‐(1→3)‐Oβ‐D ‐glucopyranosyl‐(1→4)‐β‐D ‐galactopyranoside ( 1 ) and (3β,5β,25R)‐3‐[(2‐Oβ‐D ‐glucopyranosyl‐β‐D ‐galactopyranosyl)oxy]spirostan‐12‐one ( 2 ) on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and acidic hydrolysis.  相似文献   
4.
Based on an earlier article (Eberly and Singh, Phys. Rev. D 1973 , 7, 359) and related works on short‐time evolution, this article proposes a many‐electron formulation for the nonstationarity degree which can be assigned to quantum system at each time point. The key measure introduced, , is a nonstationarity index that can be thought of as an inverse nominal lifetime at each instance of time. The index is directly computed from the time derivative of one‐electron density matrix and is a size‐consistent quantity. In this article, the approach is developed for the time‐dependent Hartree–Fock (TDHF), single‐excitation (TDCIS), and time‐dependent full configuration interaction (TDFCI) models. As a rule, nonstationarity effects are more pronounced in correlated electron systems, and a joint analysis of and the multiconfigurational character of wave functions apparently provide a deeper insight into dynamical molecular processes. The performed calculations on small molecules in laser fields show a preference for the TDCIS model when comparing TDCIS and TDHF with the “exact” TDFCI model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
5.
Adult tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae) occur in the small intestines of carnivorous definitive hosts and are transmitted to particular intermediate mammalian hosts, in which they develop as fluid‐filled larvae (cysts) in internal organs (usually lung and liver), causing the disease echinococcosis. Echinococcus species are of major medical importance and also cause losses to the meat and livestock industries, mainly due to the condemnation of infected offal. Decisions regarding the treatment and control of echinococcosis rely on the accurate identification of species and population variants (strains). Conventional, phenetic methods for specific identification have some significant limitations. Despite advances in the development of molecular tools, there has been limited application of mutation scanning methods to species of Echinococcus. Here, we briefly review key genetic markers used for the identification of Echinococcus species and techniques for the analysis of genetic variation within and among populations, and the diagnosis of echinococcosis. We also discuss the benefits of utilizing mutation scanning approaches to elucidate the population genetics and epidemiology of Echinococcus species. These benefits are likely to become more evident following the complete characterization of the genomes of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis.  相似文献   
6.
We present a new software to easily perform QM:MM and QM:QM' calculations called QMX. It follows the subtraction scheme and it is implemented in the Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE). Special attention is paid to couple molecular calculations with periodic boundaries approaches. QMX inherits the flexibility and versatility of the ASE package: any combination of methods namely force field, semiempirical, first principle, and ab initio, can be used as hybrid potential energy surface (PES). Its ease of use is demonstrated by considering the adsorption of Al2Cl3Me3 on silica surface and by combining different levels of theory (from standard DFT to MP2 calculations) for the so‐called High Level cluster with standard PW91 density functional theory calculations for the Low Level environment. It is shown that the High Level cluster must contain the silanol group close to the aluminum atoms. The bridging adsorption is favored by 58 kJ mol?1 at the MP2:PW91 level with respect to the terminal position. Using large clusters at the MP2:PW91 level, it is shown that PW91 calculations are sufficient for structure optimization but that embedded methods are required for accurate energy profiles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
7.
In recent years, several methods have been developed that partition the electron density among atoms using spherically symmetric atomic weights. D. E. P. Vanpoucke, P. Bultinck, and I. Van Driessche (J. Comput. Chem. 2012, doi: 10.1002/jcc.23088) recently reported a periodic implementation of the Hirshfeld‐I method that uses a combination of Becke‐style and uniform integration grids and modified atomic reference densities to compute net atomic charges in periodic materials. Herein, this method is discussed in the context of earlier periodic implementations of the Hirshfeld‐I method, the Iterated Stockholder Atoms method, and the density derived electrostatic and chemical method.  相似文献   
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