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1.
In this study, we propose a modelling framework for evaluating companies financed by random liabilities, such as insurance companies or commercial banks. In this approach, earnings and costs are driven by double exponential jump–diffusion processes and bankruptcy is declared when the income falls below a default threshold, which is proportional to the charges. A change of numeraire, under the Esscher risk neutral measure, is used to reduce the dimension. A closed form expression for the value of equity is obtained in terms of the expected present value operators, with and without disinvestment delay. In both cases, we determine the default threshold that maximizes the shareholder’s equity. Subsequently, the probabilities of default are obtained by inverting the Laplace transform of the bankruptcy time. In numerical applications of the proposed model, we apply a procedure for calibration based on market and accounting data to explain the behaviour of shares for two real-world examples of insurance companies.  相似文献   
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We present a form of the Mean Value Theorem (MVT) for a continuous function f between metric spaces, connecting it with the possibility to choose the relation of f in a homeomorphic way. We also compare our formulation of the MVT with the classic one when the metric spaces are open subsets of Banach spaces. As a consequence, we derive a version of the Mean Value Propriety for measure spaces that also possesses a compatible metric structure.  相似文献   
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In addition to understanding the various meanings attached to the word “pressure” one also has to comprehend the meanings of the phrases in which the term “pressure” appears. For instance one comes across the following combinations: “static-fluid pressure”, “thermodynamic pressure”, “mechanical pressure”, “contact pressure”, “stagnation pressure”, “vapor pressure”, “electro-osmotic pressure”, etc., One also often comes across the comment that “pressure is the Lagrange multiplier that enforces the constraint of incompressibility” and that “pressure is the mean normal stress”. In general the word “pressure” with different significations, is used with gay abandon without paying proper attention to its usage1. The distinction in the meanings of the above terms assumes paramount significance when discussing properties of materials, which could possibly depend on “pressure”. In this short note we discuss the distinction between various significations of the word “pressure”, and their implications with regard to response relations for bodies.  相似文献   
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We present two novel two-step explicit methods for the numerical solution of the second order initial value problem on a variable mesh. In the case of a constant mesh the method is superstable in the sense of Chawla (1985). Numerical experimentation is provided to verify the stability analysis.  相似文献   
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This paper describes well‐posedness, spectral representations, and approximations of solutions of uniformly elliptic, second‐order, divergence form elliptic boundary value problems on exterior regions U in when N ≥ 3. Inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions are treated. These problems are first shown to be well‐posed in the space E1(U) of finite‐energy functions on U using variational methods. Spectral representations of these solutions involving Steklov eigenfunctions and solutions subject to zero Dirichlet boundary conditions are described. Some approximation results for the A‐harmonic components are obtained. Positivity and comparison results for these solutions are given. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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In this paper, a collocation method is given to solve singularly perturbated two‐point boundary value problems. By using the collocation points, matrix operations and the matrix relations of the Bessel functions of the first kind and their derivatives, the boundary value problem is converted to a system of the matrix equations. By solving this system, the approximate solution is obtained. Also, an error problem is constructed by the residual function, and it is solved by the presented method. Thus, the error function is estimated, and the approximate solutions are improved. Finally, numerical examples are given to show the applicability of the method, and also, our results are compared by existing results. Copyright © 2014 JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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This paper offers conditions ensuring the existence of solutions of linear boundary value problems for systems of dynamic equations on time scales. Utilizing a method of Moore–Penrose pseudo‐inverse matrices leads to an analytical form of a criterion for the existence of solutions in a relevant space and, moreover, to the construction of a family of linearly independent solutions of such problems in a general case with the number of boundary conditions (defined by a linear vector functional) not coinciding with the number of unknowns of a system of dynamic equations. As an example of an application of the presented results, the problem of bifurcation of solutions of boundary value problems for systems of dynamic equations on time scales with a small parameter is considered.  相似文献   
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