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1.
The cell rotation graph D(G) on the strongly connected orientations of a 2-edge-connected plane graph G is defined. It is shown that D(G) is a directed forest and every component is an in-tree with one root; if T is a component of D(G), the reversions of all orientations in T induce a component of D(G), denoted by T, thus (T,T) is called a pair of in-trees of D(G); G is Eulerian if and only if D(G) has an odd number of components (all Eulerian orientations of G induce the same component of D(G)); the width and height of T are equal to that of T, respectively. Further it is shown that the pair of directed tree structures on the perfect matchings of a plane elementary bipartite graph G coincide with a pair of in-trees of D(G). Accordingly, such a pair of in-trees on the perfect matchings of any plane bipartite graph have the same width and height.  相似文献
2.
For an integer k > 0, a graph G is k-triangular if every edge of G lies in at least k distinct 3-cycles of G. In (J Graph Theory 11:399–407 (1987)), Broersma and Veldman proposed an open problem: for a given positive integer k, determine the value s for which the statement “Let G be a k-triangular graph. Then L(G), the line graph of G, is s-hamiltonian if and only L(G) is (s + 2)-connected” is valid. Broersma and Veldman proved in 1987 that the statement above holds for 0 ≤ sk and asked, specifically, if the statement holds when s = 2k. In this paper, we prove that the statement above holds for 0 ≤ s ≤ max{2k, 6k − 16}.  相似文献
3.
Plesnik in 1972 proved that an (m − 1)-edge connected m-regular graph of even order has a 1-factor containing any given edge and has another 1-factor excluding any given m − 1 edges. Alder et al. in 1999 showed that if G is a regular (2n + 1)-edge-connected bipartite graph, then G has a 1-factor containing any given edge and excluding any given matching of size n. In this paper we obtain some sufficient conditions related to the edge-connectivity for an n-regular graph to have a k-factor containing a set of edges and (or) excluding a set of edges, where 1 ≤ kn/2. In particular, we generalize Plesnik’s result and the results obtained by Liu et al. in 1998, and improve Katerinis’ result obtained 1993. Furthermore, we show that the results in this paper are the best possible. The work is partially supported by FRG, Hong Kong Baptist University NSFC (60673047) and SRFDP (20040422004) of China  相似文献
4.
In this paper we study three-color Ramsey numbers. Let K i,j denote a complete i by j bipartite graph. We shall show that (i) for any connected graphs G 1, G 2 and G 3, if r(G 1, G 2)≥s(G 3), then r(G 1, G 2, G 3)≥(r(G 1, G 2)−1)(χ(G 3)−1)+s(G 3), where s(G 3) is the chromatic surplus of G 3; (ii) (k+m−2)(n−1)+1≤r(K 1,k , K 1,m , K n )≤ (k+m−1)(n−1)+1, and if k or m is odd, the second inequality becomes an equality; (iii) for any fixed mk≥2, there is a constant c such that r(K k,m , K k,m , K n )≤c(n/logn), and r(C 2m , C 2m , K n )≤c(n/logn) m/(m−1) for sufficiently large n. Received: July 25, 2000 Final version received: July 30, 2002 RID="*" ID="*" Partially supported by RGC, Hong Kong; FRG, Hong Kong Baptist University; and by NSFC, the scientific foundations of education ministry of China, and the foundations of Jiangsu Province Acknowledgments. The authors are grateful to the referee for his valuable comments. AMS 2000 MSC: 05C55  相似文献
5.
The notion of super-edge-graceful graphs was introduced by Mitchem and Simoson in 1994.However, few examples except trees are known. In this paper, we exhibit two classes of infinitely many cubic graphs which are super-edge-graceful. A conjecture is proposed.  相似文献
6.
The Laplacian, signless Laplacian and normalized Laplacian characteristic polynomials of a graph are the characteristic polynomials of its Laplacian matrix, signless Laplacian matrix and normalized Laplacian matrix, respectively. In this paper, we mainly derive six reduction procedures on the Laplacian, signless Laplacian and normalized Laplacian characteristic polynomials of a graph which can be used to construct larger Laplacian, signless Laplacian and normalized Laplacian cospectral graphs, respectively.  相似文献
7.
For positive numbers j and k, an L(j,k)-labeling f of G is an assignment of numbers to vertices of G such that |f(u)-f(v)|≥j if uv∈E(G), and |f(u)-f(v)|≥k if d(u,v)=2. Then the span of f is the difference between the maximum and the minimum numbers assigned by f. The L(j,k)-number of G, denoted by λj,k(G), is the minimum span over all L(j,k)-labelings of G. In this paper, we give some results about the L(j,k)-number of the direct product of a path and a cycle for j≤k.  相似文献
8.
The algebraic connectivity of a graph G is the second smallest eigenvalue of its Laplacian matrix. Let ■n be the set of all trees of order n. In this paper, we will provide the ordering of trees in ■n up to the last eight trees according to their smallest algebraic connectivities when n ≥ 13. This extends the result of Shao et al. [The ordering of trees and connected graphs by algebraic connectivity. Linear Algebra Appl., 428, 1421-1438 (2008)].  相似文献
9.
The Laplacian spectral radius of a graph is the largest eigenvalue of the associated Laplacian matrix. In this paper, we provide structural and behavioral details of graphs with maximum Laplacian spectral radius among all bipartite connected graphs of given order and size. Using these results, we provide a unified approach to determine the graphs with maximum Laplacian spectral radii among all trees, and all bipartite unicyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic and quasi-tree graphs, respectively.  相似文献
10.
We count in the present work simsun permutations of length n by their number of descents. Properties studied include the recurrence relation and real-rootedness of the generating function of the number of n-simsun permutations with k descents. By means of generating function arguments, we show that the descent number is equidistributed over n-simsun permutations and n-André permutations. We also compute the mean and variance of the random variable X n taking values the descent number of random n-simsun permutations, and deduce that the distribution of descents over random simsun permutations of length n satisfies a central and a local limit theorem as n ?? +???.  相似文献