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1.
Finitely generated projective modules over exchange rings   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
This paper studies finitely generated projective modules over exchange rings. We prove that cancellation holds inp(R), andK o (R) is completely determined by the continuous maps from the spectrum ofR toZ ifR is an exchange ring andR/J(R) is a ring with central idempotent elements.  相似文献
2.
On bipartite zero-divisor graphs   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A (finite or infinite) complete bipartite graph together with some end vertices all adjacent to a common vertex is called a complete bipartite graph with a horn. For any bipartite graph G, we show that G is the graph of a commutative semigroup with 0 if and only if it is one of the following graphs: star graph, two-star graph, complete bipartite graph, complete bipartite graph with a horn. We also prove that a zero-divisor graph is bipartite if and only if it contains no triangles. In addition, we give all corresponding zero-divisor semigroups of a class of complete bipartite graphs with a horn and determine which complete r-partite graphs with a horn have a corresponding semigroup for r≥3.  相似文献
3.
For an artinian ring R, the directed zero-divisor graph Γ(R) is connected if and only if there is no proper one-sided identity element in R. Sinks and sources are characterized and clarified for a finite ring R. Especially, it is proved that for any ring R, if there exists a source y in Γ(R) with y2=0, then |R|=4 and R={0,x,y,z}, where x and z are left identity elements and yx=0=yz. Such a ring R is also the only ring such that Γ(R) has exactly one source. This shows that Γ(R) cannot be a network for any finite or infinite ring R.  相似文献
4.
In this paper, a new zero-divisor graph $\overline{\G}(S)$ is defined and studied for a commutative semigroup $S$ with zero element. The properties and the structure of the graph are studied; for any complete graph and complete bipartite graph $G$, commutative semigroups $S$ are constructed such that the graph $G$ is isomorphic to $\overline{\G}(S)$.  相似文献
5.
A semiring is an algebraic structure similar to a ring, but without the requirement that each element must have an additive inverse. A bounded semiring is a semiring equipped with a compatible bounded partial order. In this paper, properties of zero divisors and prime elements of a bounded semiring are studied. In particular, it is proved that under some mild assumption, the set Z(A) of nonzero zero divisors of A is A / {0, 1}, and each prime element of A is a maximal element. For a bounded semiring A with Z(A) = A / {0, 1}, it is proved that A has finitely many maximal elements if ACC holds either for elements of A or for principal annihilating ideals of A. As an application of prime elements, we show that the structure of a bounded semiring A is completely determined by the structure of integral bounded semirings if either |Z(A)| = 1 or |Z(A)| -- 2 and Z(A)2 ≠ 0. Applications to the ideal structure of commutative rings are also considered. In particular, when R has a finite number of ideals, it is shown that the chain complex of the poset I(R) is pure and shellable, where I(R) consists of all ideals of R.  相似文献
6.
7.
Let G be a refinement of a star graph with center c. Let be the subgraph of G induced on the vertex set V(G)?{c or end vertices adjacent to c}. In this paper, we completely determine the structure of commutative zero-divisor semigroups S whose zero-divisor graph G=Γ(S) and S satisfy one of the following properties: (1) has at least two connected components, (2) is a cycle graph Cn of length n≥5, (3) is a path graph Pn with n≥6, (4) S is nilpotent and Γ(S) is a finite or an infinite star graph. For any finite or infinite cardinal number n≥2, we prove that for any nilpotent semigroup S with zero element 0, S4=0 if Γ(S) is a star graph K1,n. We prove that there is exactly one nilpotent semigroup S such that S3≠0 and Γ(S)≅K1,n. For several classes of finite graphs G which are refinements of a star graph, we also obtain formulas to count the number of non-isomorphic corresponding semigroups.  相似文献
8.
Tongsuo Wu  Dancheng Lu   《Discrete Mathematics》2008,308(22):5122-5135
In this paper we study sub-semigroups of a finite or an infinite zero-divisor semigroup S determined by properties of the zero-divisor graph Γ(S). We use these sub-semigroups to study the correspondence between zero-divisor semigroups and zero-divisor graphs. In particular, we discover a class of sub-semigroups of reduced semigroups and we study properties of sub-semigroups of finite or infinite semilattices with the least element. As an application, we provide a characterization of the graphs which are zero-divisor graphs of Boolean rings. We also study how local property of Γ(S) affects global property of the semigroup S, and we discover some interesting applications. In particular, we find that no finite or infinite two-star graph has a corresponding nil semigroup.  相似文献
9.
The paper studies the following question: Given a ring R, when does the zero-divisor graph Γ(R) have a regular endomorphism monoid? We prove if R contains at least one nontrivial idempotent, then Γ(R) has a regular endomorphism monoid if and only if R is isomorphic to one of the following rings: Z2×Z2×Z2; Z2×Z4; Z2×(Z2[x]/(x2)); F1×F2, where F1,F2 are fields. In addition, we determine all positive integers n for which Γ(Zn) has the property.  相似文献
10.
This paper determines all commutative zero divisor semigroups whose zero divisor graph is a complete graph (finite or infinite), or a complete graph (finite or infinite) with one additional end vertex, and gives formulas for the numbers of all such semigroups with n elements. The research of T. Wu is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10671122) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 06ZR14049).  相似文献
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