首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   1471篇
  免费   493篇
  国内免费   63篇
化学   684篇
晶体学   5篇
力学   685篇
综合类   36篇
数学   74篇
物理学   543篇
  2024年   1篇
  2023年   22篇
  2022年   58篇
  2021年   42篇
  2020年   59篇
  2019年   39篇
  2018年   35篇
  2017年   69篇
  2016年   71篇
  2015年   71篇
  2014年   71篇
  2013年   143篇
  2012年   83篇
  2011年   132篇
  2010年   89篇
  2009年   102篇
  2008年   102篇
  2007年   77篇
  2006年   118篇
  2005年   101篇
  2004年   71篇
  2003年   67篇
  2002年   59篇
  2001年   51篇
  2000年   42篇
  1999年   41篇
  1998年   42篇
  1997年   32篇
  1996年   33篇
  1995年   24篇
  1994年   18篇
  1993年   12篇
  1992年   13篇
  1991年   7篇
  1990年   9篇
  1989年   4篇
  1988年   2篇
  1987年   3篇
  1986年   2篇
  1985年   2篇
  1984年   2篇
  1983年   1篇
  1982年   4篇
  1978年   1篇
排序方式: 共有2027条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
The inhibition performance of five azomethine derivatives such as: 1-(4-Methyloxy phenylimino)-1-(phenylhydrazono)-propan-2-one (SB1), 1-(4-Methylphenylimino)-1-(phenylhydrazono) propan-2-one (SB2), 1-(phenylimino)-1(phenylhydrazono)-propan-2-one (SB3), 1-(4-Bromo phenylimino)-1(phenylhydrazono)-propan-2-one (SB4) and 1-(4-Chlorophenylimino)-1(phenylhydrazono) -propan-2-on (SB5) as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in sulfuric acid 0.5 ?M were investigated using different methods. All experimental results demonstrate that these compounds are eficients inhibitors. The inhibition efficiencies (IE) increase with inhibitors concentration. At 7.5 × 10?5 ?M, the IE was 97.27%, 96.31%, 94.23%, 93.19 and 91.64% for SB1, SB2, SB3, SB4 and SB5, respectively. The potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that all the studied inhibitors act as mixed type. The adsorption process on mild steel surface obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The associated activation parameters and thermodynamic have been calculated and discussed. The adsorbed film formed on the metal surface was characterized by SEM and EDX.  相似文献   
2.
This work is intended to examine the microbially influenced corrosion on galvanized steel (GS) caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The efficacy of Butea monosperma (palash) leaf extract to mitigate the corrosion caused by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was investigated in modified Barr's medium. Weight loss and electrochemical analysis were performed to check the corrosion rate at regular time intervals. SEM images were performed to understand the level of deterioration of the metal surfaces. Image analysis of the unprotected sample showed the presence of pits. From the gravimetric study, the maximum inhibition efficiency (IE) of 98% was obtained with 500 ppm of Palash leaf extract for the fourth-week sample. With the addition of 500 ppm of palash extract, the sulfide concentration decreases to 0 ppm from 123 ppm. Outcomes of potentiodynamic polarization (PP) studies showed that the extract disturbs the cathodic reaction significantly and moves the corrosion potential to a more negative value and IE was about 71% from PP studies. FTIR and GC-MS analysis was performed to recognize the plausible chemical compounds present in Palash leaf powder. EIS results confirmed that the resistance to corrosion increases substantially with the addition of inhibitor. The mechanism for corrosion inhibition has been proposed based on the results obtained.  相似文献   
3.
The inhibition efficiency of 2-Pyrrolidin-1-yl-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (PTCA) against mild steel (MS) corrosion was investigated in acidic solution by using quantum chemical calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) method and electrochemical measurements. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic, potential zero charge (pzc) analysis and electrochemical noise (EN) measurements at various concentrations (from 0.1 to 10 mM) and immersion times were utilized in experimental part. The surface analysis was achieved scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle measurements in the absence and presence of 10 mM PTCA. According to DFT results, PTCA exhibited 3.737 eV band gap and 8.130 Debye dipole moment which were a signal of potentially convenient corrosion inhibitor properties. PTCA has a remarkable corrosion inhibition capability to mild steel, which inhibited both anodic and cathodic corrosion rates, relying on it's physically adsorption on the metal solution interface and protection ability was increased with increasing PTCA concentration. The obtained adsorption equilibrium constant was 11.11 × 103 M-1 and calculated standard free energy of adsorption was ?33.03 kJ mol?1. The determined activation energy values were 55.58 kJ mol?1 and 96.86 kJ mol?1 in 0.5 M HCl in the absence and presence of 10 mM PTCA, respectively. PTCA demonstrated a strong inhibition efficiency of 98.3%, after 168 h immersion, according to the EIS results. As a consequently, we recommend that PTCA is a convenient inhibitor in 0.1 M HCl for mild steel protection against corrosion.  相似文献   
4.
The effectiveness of 1H?pyrazole?3,5?dicarboxylic acid 5?benzyl ester 3?phenyl ester (PCBPE) as a preventer for deterioration of IS 513 Gr. D steel in 1 M HCl medium is evaluated via weight loss, electrochemical impedance, and polarization techniques. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters assessed the feasibility of the adsorption process at diverse temperatures. The inhibition action on mild steel has been enhanced with increasing PCBPE concentration. It is found from the polarization studies that PCBPE behaves as mixed type inhibitor in HCl medium. The adsorption process of PCBPE on mild steel surface from acid environment is favoured Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The shielding efficiency of PCBPE has been enhanced at elevated concentrations, and it has been diminished at amplified temperatures. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) were used to establish a surface characterization of metal specimens. A quantum chemical analysis of electron density distributions in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) demonstrated how the inhibitor undergoes adsorption on mild steel in 1 M HCl. All experimental findings substantiate the corrosion mitigation performance of PCBPE on mild steel in acidic environments.  相似文献   
5.
Es wird ein zuvelässiges und sehr empfindliches radiometrisches Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Ziehsteinverschleiβes beim Ziehen von Stahldraht beschrieben. Im Vergleich zu den in der Literatur angegebenen radiometrischen Meβverfahren ist das behandelte Verfahren weniger zeitaufwending und gestattet es, bei einem vertretbaren Aufwand gröβere Verscuhsreihen durchzuführen. Mit Hilfe dieser Methode ist es möglich, langwierige groβtechnische Versuche zu umgehen und gleichzeitig eine wesentlich exaktere Aussage ūber den Verschleiβ unter verschiedenen Ziehbedingungen zu erhalten.  相似文献   
6.
The paper is concerned on the calculation of the optimal thickness of measured material from the point of view of measurement error. The minimum relative error of a measurement is determined as a function of the gamma radiaiton linear attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material used. Various types of fluctuations are considered and attention is paid to the background detected in the same arrangement without measured material. The results are summarized into simple figures. The conclusion is made that the optimal thickness increases with poorer quality of the measuring instrument.  相似文献   
7.
Self-assembly of alkylphosphonic acids on stainless steel was investigated under different conditions. Four different alkylphosphonic acids exhibiting alkyl chain of various size were synthesized and studied: butylphosphonic acid (C4P), octylphosphonic acid (C8P), decylphosphonic acid (C10P), and hexadecylphosphonic acid (C16P). Electrochemistry experiments were extensively carried out in order to determine electrochemical surface blocking of adsorbed layers in function of grafting time. In term of surface blocking, an 8 h modification time was optimal for all alkylphosphonic acids. Longer immersion times lead to degradation of adsorbed layers. For the first time, grafting of C16P was studied under high frequency ultrasound irradiation. Interestingly, grafting process is highly accelerated under sonication and well-covering C16P modified substrates are obtained after 1 h of immersion under ultrasound irradiation. This would allow to elaborate high-quality alkylphosphonic acids modified samples within much shorter times. Water contact angles measurements and X-ray Photoelectrons Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed presence of adsorbed alkylphosphonic acids on stainless steel surface. A very tight link between electrochemical blocking, surface hydrophobicity and species chemical grafting was established.  相似文献   
8.
This paper deals with the mechanics involved in a spinning wheel of which the pivot is not fixed as usual but is forced to rotate along the circumference of a circle on the horizontal plane. The usual Euler equations are extended so that, in addition to the three well-known rotations (Euler angles), they also include a fourth one related to the rotation of the motor that induces the forced precession. This study aims at offering a first insight in one of the renowned Laithwaite's experiments. The derived theoretical expressions are accompanied by computer simulation.  相似文献   
9.
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and XPS studies on AISI 304 stainless steel in naturally aerated 0.5 M H2SO4 solution were carried out at room temperature. The valuable model of the metal/solution interphase was established, and the reliable equivalent electrical circuits in the solution were presented. The analysis of the chemical composition of passive film on AISI 304 stainless steel was carried out by XPS. The passive film of AISI 304 stainless steel is composed of oxyhydroxides, Fe2O3, FeO, Cr2O3, NiO, sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide (FeS, NiS). It is reported that the ferrous sulfide film formed on AISI 304 stainless steel in the dilute sulfuric acid solution. The possible process in which sulfuric acid is reduced to sulfite and sulfide is proposed. The galvanic interaction of sulfide inclusions with the base alloy is introduced. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
The corrosion behaviours of austenitic stainless steels were investigated by electrochemical methods under plastic deformation with constant strain in the naturally aerated 0.5 M H2SO4 + 0.2 M KCl solution at room temperature. The work addresses the influence of plastic deformation and molybdenum element on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels in the test solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy presents the decreasing charge transfer resistance (Rt) and polarization resistance (Rp) values with the immersion time for AISI 304 stainless steel under constant strain deformation, and the increasing Rt and Rp values with the immersion time for AISI 316 stainless steel. The analysis of the chemical composition of the corrosion products was carried out by XPS. Molybdenum addition in AISI 316 stainless steel affects significantly the corrosion resistance because of its high ability to form Mo (VI) and MoCl5 insoluble compounds in acid medium. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号