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1.
The tadpole‐shaped amphiphilic copolymers with cyclic polystyrene as the head and a linear poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) as the tail have been successfully synthesized by combination of reversible addition‐fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and “click” reaction. The synthesis involves two main steps: (1) preparation of a linear acetylene‐terminated PNIPAAM‐b‐PS with a side azido group anchored at the junction between two blocks; (2) intramolecular cyclization reaction to produce the cyclic PS block using “click” chemistry under high dilution. The structures, molecular weights, and molecular weight distributions of the resulted intermediates and the target polymers were characterized by their 1H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography. The difference of surface property between tadpole‐shaped polymer and its linear precursor was observed, and the water contact angles on the former surface are larger than that of the latter surface. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 2390–2401, 2008  相似文献   
2.
Twin‐tail tadpole‐shaped hydrophillic copolymers composed of cyclic poly(ethylene gycol) (PEG) and two linear poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains have been successfully synthesized by the combination of single‐electron‐transfer living radical polymerization and click chemistry under high concentration. Click cycloaddition reaction occurred between linear PNIPAM‐b‐PEG‐b‐PNIPAM with two azide groups at block junctions and dipropargyl oxalylate with high yield and efficiency. The resulting intermediates and the targeted polymers were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal phase transition behaviors of twin‐tail tadpole‐shaped polymers and their linear precursors were investigated by temperature‐dependent turbidity measurements, micro differential scanning calorimetry, and laser light scattering. The twin‐tail tadpole‐shaped polymers possess higher critical solution temperature (LCST) and smaller average aggregate size compared with their linear precursors with the same molecular weight. The above differences in the thermal phase transition behaviors should be due to the repulsive forces caused by the ring topology, which prohibited the intermolecular association. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2009  相似文献   
3.
李婷婷  胡文蓉 《力学季刊》2019,40(2):243-251
通过求解三维粘性非定常不可压缩流体Navier-Stokes方程组,数值模拟了仿蝌蚪游动时的水动力学特性和流场特征,分析了蝌蚪摆动频率和雷诺数等运动参数和流场条件对蝌蚪游动的影响.此外,探讨了蝌蚪特有的钝体头部以及摆动方式的影响.结果表明,蝌蚪游动时不同的受力状态对应于不同的尾涡结构特征.蝌蚪特殊的运动方式与其特殊的体态特征是相匹配的.  相似文献   
4.
重金属离子对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪红细胞核异常的诱导   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
以中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪为材料,通过核异常测试法,研究了Zn^2+、Cu^2+和Cd^2+3种重金属离子对其红细胞核异常的诱导.结果表明:经Zn^2+或Cu^2+处理后,红细胞核异常细胞率随着重金属离子浓度的增大而升高,同时随着染毒时间的延长而升高,存在明显的剂量和时间效应.经Cd^2+处理后,红细胞核异常细胞率随着重金属离子浓度的增大呈先升高后降低的趋势,同时随着染毒时间的延长变化不明显,无时间效应.  相似文献   
5.
The tadpole‐shaped copolymers polystyrene (PS)‐b‐[cyclic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)] [PS‐b‐(c‐PEO)] contained linear tail chains of PS and cyclic head chains of PEO were synthesized by combination of Glaser coupling with living anionic polymerization (LAP) and ring‐opening polymerization (ROP). First, the functionalized polystyrene‐glycerol (PS‐Gly) with two active hydroxyl groups at ω end was synthesized by LAP of St and the subsequent capping with 1‐ethoxyethyl glycidyl ether and then deprotection of protected hydroxyl group in acid condition. Then, using PS‐Gly as macroinitiator, the ROP of EO was performed using diphenylmethylpotassium as cocatalyst for AB2 star‐shaped copolymers PS‐b‐(PEO‐OH)2, and the alkyne group was introduced onto PEO arm end for PS‐b‐(PEO‐Alkyne)2. Finally, the intramolecular cyclization was performed by Glaser coupling reaction in pyridine/Cu(I)Br/N,N,N′,N″,N″‐pentamethyldiethylenetriamine system under room temperature, and tadpole‐shaped PS‐b‐(c‐PEO) was formed. The target copolymers and their intermediates were well characterized by size‐exclusion chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in details. The thermal properties was also determined and compared to investigate the influence of architecture on properties. The results showed that tadpole‐shaped copolymers had lower Tm, Tc, and Xc than that of their precursors of AB2 star‐shaped copolymers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2012  相似文献   
6.
The temperature‐responsive poly (N, N‐diethylacrylamide) (pDEAAm) with narrower molecular weight distribution was prepared by the atom transfer radical polymerization and characterized by 1HNMR and gel permeation chromatography. The temperature‐responsive “tadpole‐shaped” BSA–pDEAAm hybrids were fabricated via a free Cys‐34 residue of bovine serum albumin (BSA) site specifically binding to the end group disulfide bonds of pDEAAm and characterized by native‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native‐PAGE) and matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Their temperature‐responsive behaviors were measured by ultraviolet‐visible spectra (UV‐Vis). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the pDEAAm was identified as 28°C, and the LCST of BSA–pDEAAm hybrids was identified as 31°C. The morphologies of BSA–pDEAAm hybrids self‐assembled in the aqueous solutions with two different temperatures at 25 °C and 40°C were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Below the LCST of BSA–pDEAAm hybrids, the separate spherical nanoparticles were observed. In contrast, bundles and clusters were observed above the LCST of BSA–pDEAAm hybrids. The results suggested that the self‐assembly morphology of BSA–pDEAAm hybrids depended upon the pDEAAm block in BSA–pDEAAm hybrids, and the morphology transitions were effected by the LCST of BSA–pDEAAm hybrids. It would be expected to be used in biomedicine and materials science. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
四种重金属对绿蟾蜍蝌蚪的急性毒性研究   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
本文报导了4种重金属离子对绿蟾蜍蝌蚪的96h(小时)急性毒性.Ag~+、Cu~(++)、Hg~(++)和 Cr~(+6)的96hLC_(50)值分别是0.29ppm、1.1ppm、0.7ppm 和50ppm.四种重金属都是腐蚀剂,能使蝌蚪皮肤溃烂或脱色,其中以银和铜的腐蚀性最强.不同金属的中毒表现明显不同.由于蝌蚪对重金属的敏感性,蝌蚪作为监测水体污染的检测系统是可行的.  相似文献   
8.
We designed a trifunctional initiator ( 3 ) containing anthracene, bromide, and OH functionalities and subsequently used as an initiator in atom transfer radical Polymerization (ATRP) of styrene to yield linear polystyrene (PS) with α‐anthracene, OH, and ω‐bromide terminal groups, of which bromide is later transformed into azide to result in the linear anthracene‐, OH‐, and azide‐terminated PS (l‐α‐anthracene‐OH‐ω‐azide‐PS). The copper‐catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reaction between l‐α‐anthracene‐OH‐ω‐azide‐PS and α‐furan‐protected‐maleimide‐ω‐alkyne linkage, 4 afforded the linear anthracene‐, OH‐, and maleimide‐terminated PS. The cyclization via intramolecular Diels–Alder click reaction of this linear PS and the subsequent conversion of the hydroxyl into bromide resulted in the cyclic PS with one bromide located on the ring, (c‐PS)‐Br. Finally, the c‐PS‐Br was clicked with either well‐defined tetramethylpiperidine‐1‐oxyl‐terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or poly(ε‐caprolactone) (PCL) yielding the tadpole polymer, (c‐PS)‐b‐PEG or (c‐PS)‐b‐PCL. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2012  相似文献   
9.
采用双向电泳和质谱技术对牛蛙蝌蚪变态发育中(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ期)肌肉总蛋白质进行了研究.获得了10个与牛蛙蝌蚪变态相关的差异性蛋白.对10个差异蛋白进行质谱鉴定及数据库的检索后,发现了参与细胞分化及胚胎发育的锌指蛋白XLCOF22、参与蛋白质合成的转录启动子RAP30和初期发育蛋白EGR2-XENLA.  相似文献   
10.
A novel amphiphilic branch‐ring‐branch tadpole‐shaped [linear‐poly(ε‐caprolactone)]‐b‐[cyclic‐poly(ethylene oxide)]‐b‐[linear‐poly(ε‐caprolactone)] [(l‐PCL)‐b‐(c‐PEO)‐b‐(l‐PCL)] was synthesized by combination of glaser coupling reaction with ring‐opening polymerization (ROP) mechanism. The self‐assembling behaviors of (l‐PCL)‐b‐(c‐PEO)‐b‐(l‐PCL) and their π‐shaped analogs of poly(ε‐caprolactone)/poly(ethylene oxide)]‐b‐poly(ethylene oxide)‐b‐[poly(ε‐caprolactone)/poly(ethylene oxide) with comparable molecular weight in water were preliminarily investigated. The results showed that the micelles formed from the former took a fiber look, however, that formed from the latter took a spherical look. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2012  相似文献   
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