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We have developed a novel chip-level membrane deflection experiment particularly suited for the investigation of sub-micron thin films and microelectro-mechanical systems. The experiment consists of loading a fixed-fixed membrane with a line load applied at the middle of the span using a nanoindenter. A Mirau microscope interferometer is positioned below the membrane to observe its response in real time. This is accomplished through a micromachined wafer containing a window that exposes the bottom surface of the specimen. A combined atomic force microscope/nanoindenter incorporates the interferometer to allow continuous monitoring of the membrane deflection during both loading and unloading. As the nanoindenter engages and deflects the sample downward, fringes are formed and acquired by means of a CCD camera. Digital monochromatic images are obtained and stored at periodic intervals of time to map the strain field. Stresses and strains are computed independently without recourse to mathematical assumptions or numerical calibrations. Additionally, no restrictions on the material behavior are imposed in the interpretation of the data. In fact, inelastic mechanisms including strain gradient plasticity, piezo and shape memory effects can be characterized by this technique.The test methodology, data acquisition and reduction are illustrated by investigating the response of 1-μm thick gold membranes. A Young's modulus of , a yield stress of and a residual stress of are consistently measured. The post-yield behavior leading to fracture exhibits typical statistical variations associated to plasticity and microcrack initiation.  相似文献
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The Portevin–Le Chatelier (PLC) instability is commonly observed in Al–Mg alloys and is manifested in serrated flow within the stress–strain response. We investigate the persistence of this instability with reduction in grain size by studying an ultrafine-grained (ufg) aluminum alloy (Al5083) and a conventional grain size Al5083. Micro-scale tensile tests combined with digital image correlation (DIC) reveal strength anisotropy and heterogeneity of the deformation in the three material directions (extrusion, rolled, and transverse). For the same applied displacement rate, the PLC effect in ufg-Al5083 is observed only over a small strain range immediately following the yield, while the coarse-grained Al5083 exhibits serrated flow over nearly the entire plastic strain range. These observations are explained using the stability analysis of H?hner (Acta Mater 45:3695–3707, 1997), and implications for nanocrystalline (nc) alloys are discussed.  相似文献
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