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1.
力学可以为农业现代化作贡献   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
华云龙  董务民 《力学进展》1998,28(3):289-298
农业现代化提出了许多与力学各个分支都有密切关系的问题.从农田耕作、农业物料性质、农产品烘干、水果和蔬菜生产、农业生物环境、节水灌溉、农业水土资源合理利用和作物生长等方面,介绍了有关的力学问题和目前的研究进展.  相似文献
2.
On the modeling of confined buckling of force chains   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Buckling of force chains, laterally confined by weak network particles, has long been held as the underpinning mechanism for key instabilities arising in dense, cohesionless granular assemblies, e.g. shear banding and slip-stick phenomena. Despite the demonstrated significance of this mechanism from numerous experimental and discrete element studies, there is as yet no model for the confined buckling of force chains. We present herein the first structural mechanical model of this mechanism. Good agreement is found between model predictions and confined force chain buckling events in discrete element simulations. A complete parametric analysis is undertaken to determine the effect of various particle-scale properties on the stability and failure of force chains. Transparency across scales is achieved, as the mechanisms on the microscopic and mesoscopic domains, which drive well-known macroscopic trends in biaxial compression tests, are elucidated.  相似文献
3.
关于定向爆破筑坝中抛掷和滑移效应的分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
许连坡 《爆炸与冲击》1990,10(3):198-208
4.
颗粒物质中滑动摩擦力的变化规律   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
通过提拉插入颗粒物质中的圆棒,测量并研究了圆棒与颗粒物质之间的滑动摩擦力。实验结果表明,滑动摩擦力F明显不同于连续介质固体之间的摩擦力规律,而是随测量时间t成非线性上升;做功率谱分析后,发现功率S(f)与频率f存在幂指数的关系,即S(f)∝f-1.80±0.05;这说明颗粒物质在外界扰动下存在不断的崩塌重组过程,此过程可利用自组织临界模型得到较好的解释。此研究使我们进一步认识了颗粒物质的摩擦力特性。  相似文献
5.
A variety of experimental techniques have been used to advance understanding of strain localization phenomena in sands. However, all of these methods have fallen short in characterizing the evolution of the grain-scale processes that necessarily control shear band formation and growth in sands. This paper presents results of application of the non-destructive displacement measurement technique of digital image correlation (DIC) to measure two- and three-dimensional surface displacements on plane strain and axisymmetric sand specimens over short time steps. The abundance of local displacement data, high level of accuracy, and nearly continuous (spatially and temporally) record of displacement evolution afforded by the DIC technique has finally enabled a means to quantify local displacements to particulate-scale intensity. The data have been used to evaluate the local displacement mechanisms leading to the triggering of the formation of persistent shear bands, the timing of shear band formation with regard to the achievement of peak stress, and the character of displacements within fully formed shear bands. Insights are offered regarding the relation between strain localization and global stress-strain behavior, and the ensuing interpretations of shear banding as a hardening or softening phenomenon. Comparison of behavior between plane strain and triaxial tests offer additional perspective on the influences of three-dimensional stresses and boundary conditions on shear banding. The results further shed light on the micro-deformation mechanisms (i.e. buckling columns) responsible for the observed local strain non-uniformities that characterize “steady-state” shear band evolution.  相似文献
6.
Grain crushing is one of the micromechanisms that governs the stress-strain behaviour of a granular material, and also its permeability by altering the grain size distribution. It is therefore advantageous to be able to predict the point of onset of crushing and to quantify the subsequent evolution of crushing. This paper uses the data of Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations to inform a statistical model of granular crushing. Distributions of normalised contact forces are first obtained. If the statistical distribution of the crushing strength of the grains is then known, the onset of crushing within an assembly of grains should be predictable. Two different cases, one in which grain strength was statistically independent of grain size and one showing an arbitrary trend, were used to compare with DEM results and so confirm the validity of the statistical method.  相似文献
7.
The nanogranular nature of C-S-H   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Despite its ubiquitous presence as binding phase in all cementitious materials, the mechanical behavior of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) is still an enigma that has deceived many decoding attempts from experimental and theoretical sides. In this paper, we propose and validate a new technique and experimental protocol to rationally assess the nanomechanical behavior of C-S-H based on a statistical analysis of hundreds of nanoindentation tests. By means of this grid indentation technique we identify in situ two structurally distinct but compositionally similar C-S-H phases heretofore hypothesized to exist as low density (LD) C-S-H and high density (HD) C-S-H, or outer and inner products. The main finding of this paper is that both phases exhibit a unique nanogranular behavior which is driven by particle-to-particle contact forces rather than by mineral properties. We argue that this nanomechanical blueprint of material invariant behavior of C-S-H is a consequence of the hydration reactions during which precipitating C-S-H nanoparticles percolate generating contact surfaces. As hydration proceeds, these nanoparticles pack closer to center on-average around two characteristic limit packing densities, the random packing limit (η=64%) and the ordered face-centered cubic (fcc) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) packing limit (η=74%), forming a characteristic LD C-S-H and HD C-S-H phase.  相似文献
8.
散粒体卸载特性的三轴伸长试验研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
根据岩土体的加卸载变形过程和应力状态,卸载曲线分为弹性卸载段和卸载伸长段.采用三种不同粒径的玻璃珠和标准丰浦砂散粒材料进行了三轴伸长卸载试验,对比分析了不同材料、初始偏应力和不同围压下散粒体的卸载特性.研究表明散粒体的单向伸长卸载强度主要取决于与卸载方向垂直的围压和颗粒的内摩擦,且与围压成线性关系,初始偏应力状态及各向异性对于散粒体的伸长强度无影响,但影响其破坏发展形态.此外,材料特性包括表面粗糙度和级配、孔隙率等对内摩擦及伸长卸载特性均有影响.  相似文献
9.
不同尺度分布散粒材料砂堆形成过程的二维离散元模拟   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
用作者开发的离散元程序,模拟不同尺寸分布的砂堆形成过程.把散体颗粒简化为圆形颗粒,模拟过程分三步:首先利用参考网格生成颗粒的松散堆积结构;为了避免颗粒下落的冲击作用对砂堆安息角的影响,先模拟颗粒在重力作用下在圆柱容器内的自由下落与堆积,直至堆积达到稳定;最后,移除容器,只保留一个底部边界,模拟颗粒体系的散落过程,直至形成一个稳定的砂堆.模拟结果表明,在其他参数保持相同的情况下,随着颗粒尺寸的减小,砂堆的安患角逐步减小并趋向于一常值.对模拟中的两组颗粒体系进行相同条件下的砂堆形成实验,结果表明,模拟与实验所得安息角大体相当.  相似文献
10.
Analysis of instantaneous dynamic states of vibrated granular materials   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The behavior of granular materials subjected to continuous vertical vibrations is dependent on a variety of factors, including how energetically the containment vessel is shaken as well as particle properties. Motivation for the investigation reported here is based on phenomenon in which bulk solids attain an increase in density upon relaxation. The results of a detailed, discrete element study designed to examine the dynamic state of a granular material is presented, in which particles are represented as inelastic, frictional spheres. The phase in which the assembly finds itself immediately before vibrations are stopped is quantified by computing depth profiles of the translational energy ratio R in conjunction with profiles of solids fraction ν and granular temperature T. The use of particles that are more frictional tends to hinder or delay thermalization, while particle restitution coefficient plays a role when the flow is collision dominated. The structure before vibrations are applied plays an important role in determining the depth profiles and the phase pattern only at low accelerations. On the other hand, large accelerations can easily dislodge the poured configuration very quickly so that the initial condition is not major factor in the phase pattern.  相似文献
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