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1.
Benznidazole (BNZ) and nifurtimox are the only drugs available for treating Chagas disease. In this work, we validated a bioanalytical method for the quantification of BNZ in plasma aimed at improving sensitivity and time of analysis compared with the assays already published. Furthermore, we demonstrated the application of the method in a preclinical pharmacokinetic study after administration of a single oral dose of BNZ in Wistar rats. A Waters® Acquity UHPLC system equipped with a UV–vis detector was employed. The method was established using an Acquity® UHPLC HSS SB C18 protected by an Acquity® UHPLC HSS SB C18 VanGuard guard column and detection at 324 nm. The mobile phase consisted of ultrapure water–acetonitrile (65:35), and elution was isocratic. The mobile phase flow rate was 0.55 mL/min, the volume of injection was 1 μL, and the run time was just 2 min. The samples were kept at 25°C until injection and the column at 45°C for the chromatographic separation. The sample preparation was performed by a rapid protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The linear concentration range was 0.15–20 µg/mL. The pharmacokinetic parameters of BNZ in rats were determined and the method was considered sensitive, fast and suitable for application in pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
The combined effects of hydrostatic pressure, presence and absence of hydrogenic donor impurity are investigated on the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs nanowire superlattice. The wave functions and corresponding eigenvalues are calculated using finite difference method in the framework of effective mass approximation. Analytical expressions for the linear and third order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are obtained by means of compact-density matrix formalism. The linear and third order nonlinear absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are presented as a function of photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, incident photon intensity and relaxation time in the presence and absence of hydrogenic donor impurity. It is found that the linear and third order nonlinear absorption coefficients, refractive index changes and resonance energy are quite sensitive to the presence of impurity and applied hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, the saturation in optical spectrum and relaxation time can be adjusted by increasing pressure in presence of impurity whereas the effect of hydrostatic pressure is negligible in the case of absence of hydrogenic impurity.  相似文献   
3.
《Current Applied Physics》2015,15(5):563-568
We demonstrate the surface treatment of graphene using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system. The graphene was synthesized by a thermal chemical vapor deposition with methane gas. A Mo foil and a SiO2 wafer covered by Ni films were employed to synthesize monolayer and mixed-layered graphene, respectively. The home-built APPJ system was ignited using nitrogen gas to functionalize the graphene surface, and we studied the effect of different treatment times and interdistance between the plasma jet and the graphene surface. After the APPJ treatment, the hydrophobic character of graphene surface changed to hydrophilic. We found that the change is due to the formation of functionalities such as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the nitrogen plasma treatment induced charge doping on graphene, and the pyridinic nitrogen component in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum was significantly enhanced. We conclude that the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment enables controlling the graphene properties without introducing surface defects.  相似文献   
4.
Experimentally determined volumetric properties of the liquid binary mixture of {water (1) + glycerol (2)} were processed to calculate the changes of the following thermodynamic parameters with pressure: excess molar Gibbs free energy, ΔPoPGmE, excess molar entropy, ΔPoPSmE, excess molar enthalpy, ΔPoPHmE, as well as the enthalpy of mixing of water and glycerol, HmE, at 100 MPa. The mixing enthalpies of water and glycerol, HmE, became more exothermic with pressure increasing at all temperatures studied.  相似文献   
5.
The heat capacity of levoglucosan was measured over the temperature range (5 to 370) K by adiabatic calorimetry. The temperatures and enthalpies of a solid-phase transition and fusion for the compound were found by DSC. The obtained results allowed us to calculate thermodynamic properties of crystalline levoglucosan in the temperature range (0 to 384) K. The enthalpy of sublimation for the low-temperature crystal phase was found from the temperature-dependent saturated vapor pressures determined by the Knudsen effusion method. The thermodynamic properties of gaseous levoglucosan were calculated by methods of statistical thermodynamics using the molecular parameters from quantum chemical calculations. The enthalpy of formation of the crystalline compound was found from the experiments in a combustion calorimeter. The gas-phase enthalpy of formation was also obtained at the G4 level of theory. The thermodynamic analysis of equilibria of levoglucosan formation from cellulose, starch, and glucose was conducted.  相似文献   
6.
The iron containing langasite family compound Ba3Ta57Fe3Si2O14 was studied at high pressure up to 30 GPa at room temperature by means of in situ X-ray diffraction, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopies in diamond anvil cell. Two structural transitions at pressures ∼5 and ∼20 GPa are observed. At ∼5 GPa, the low-pressure trigonal P321 phase undergoes phase transition to the most likely P3 structure as manifested by slight increase in the c/a ratio and by anomalies of the Mössbauer and Raman spectra parameters. At ∼20 GPa, the first order phase transition to monoclinic structure occurred with a drop of unit cell volume by 9%. The appearance of the ferroelectric state at such transitions is discussed in connection with the multiferroic properties.  相似文献   
7.
张杰 《高分子科学》2015,33(11):1625-1632
Isotactic polypropylene(i PP) samples obtained by pressure vibration injection molding(PVIM) and conventional injection molding(CIM) were studied by polarized-light microscopy(PLM), respectively. It was found that the alternating bright and dark banded spherulites were generated in the transitional region of PVIM parts. It is the first time that the banded spherulites of isotactic polypropylene were observed in polymer processing. What's more, the banded spherulites were proved to be constituted of ?-form crystal by hot stage polarized-light microscopy(HT-PLM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction(WAXD). Morphology of the banded spherulites was also studied by scaning electronical microscopy(SEM).  相似文献   
8.
We developed a highly sensitive and specific high‐performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface to determine 24S‐hydroxycholesterol, a major metabolite of cholesterol formed by cytochrome P450 family 46A1, in human plasma without any derivatization step. Phosphate buffered saline including 1% Tween 80 was used as the surrogate matrix for preparation of calibration curves and quality control samples. The saponification process to convert esterified 24S‐hydroxycholesterol to free sterols was optimized, followed by liquid–liquid extraction using hexane. Chromatographic separation of 24S‐hydroxycholesterol from other isobaric endogenous oxysterols was successfully achieved with gradient mobile phase comprised of 0.1% propionic acid and acetonitrile using L‐column2 ODS (2 μm, 2.1 mm id × 150 mm). This assay was capable of determining 24S‐hydroxycholesterol in human plasma (200 μL) ranging from 1 to 100 ng/mL with acceptable intra‐ and inter‐day precision and accuracy. The potential risk of in vitro formation of 24S‐hydroxycholesterol by oxidation from endogenous cholesterol in human plasma was found to be negligible. The stability of 24S‐hydroxycholesterol in relevant solvents and human plasma was confirmed. This method was successfully applied to quantify the plasma concentrations of 24S‐hydroxycholesterol in male and female volunteers.  相似文献   
9.
Erythrocentaurin is a relatively simple natural product present among the members of Gentianaceae. A preparative method for the isolation of erythrocentaurin from the ethyl acetate fraction of Enicostemma littorale using medium‐pressure liquid chromatography has been reported. The method consisted of a simple step gradient from 10 to 20% ethyl acetate in n‐hexane. Using a 70 × 460 mm Si60 column, this method is capable of processing 20 g of material in <3 h (purity ≈ 97%). The recovery of erythrocentaurin was 87.77%. Estimation of erythrocentaurin in extracts and fractions based on high‐pressure thin‐layer chromatography was carried out on silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene/ethyl acetate/formic acid (80:18:2 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The densitometric analysis was performed at 230 nm. A well‐separated compact band of erythrocentaurin appeared at Rf 0.54 ± 0.04. The analytical method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 200–1500 ng/band with a correlation coefficient of 0.99417. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be ≈60 and ≈180 ng/band, respectively. Erythrocentaurin exhibited a concentration‐dependent α‐amylase inhibition (IC50 1.67 ± 0.28 mg/mL). The outcome of the study should be considered for pharmacokinetic and biotransformation studies involving E. littorale.  相似文献   
10.
In addition to understanding the various meanings attached to the word “pressure” one also has to comprehend the meanings of the phrases in which the term “pressure” appears. For instance one comes across the following combinations: “static-fluid pressure”, “thermodynamic pressure”, “mechanical pressure”, “contact pressure”, “stagnation pressure”, “vapor pressure”, “electro-osmotic pressure”, etc., One also often comes across the comment that “pressure is the Lagrange multiplier that enforces the constraint of incompressibility” and that “pressure is the mean normal stress”. In general the word “pressure” with different significations, is used with gay abandon without paying proper attention to its usage1. The distinction in the meanings of the above terms assumes paramount significance when discussing properties of materials, which could possibly depend on “pressure”. In this short note we discuss the distinction between various significations of the word “pressure”, and their implications with regard to response relations for bodies.  相似文献   
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