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1.
Threading of a polymer through a macrocyclic ring may occur directly, that is, by finding the end of the polymer chain, or by a process in which the polymer chain first folds and then threads through the macrocyclic ring in a hairpin‐like conformation. We present kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the threading of a macrocyclic porphyrin receptor ( H21 ) onto molecular threads that are blocked on one side and are open on the other side. The open side is modified by groups that vary in ease of folding and in bulkiness. Additionally, the threads contain a viologen binding site for the macrocyclic receptor, which is located close to the blocking group. The rates of threading of H21 were measured under various conditions, by recording as a function of time the quenching of the fluorescence of the porphyrin, which occurs when receptor H21 reaches the viologen binding site. The kinetic data suggest that threading is impossible if the receptor encounters an open side that is sterically encumbered in a similar way as a folded polymer chain. This indicates that threading of polymers through macrocyclic compounds through a folded chain mechanism is unlikely.  相似文献   
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3.
The effect of Fe-doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by simple solution combustion process are reported. The powder XRD pattern indicates that the Fe-doped ZnO samples exhibit primary and secondary phases. The primary phase indicates the hexagonal wurtzite structure with the average crystalline size of around 25–50 nm and the secondary phase is associated with the face centered cubic structure of magnetite iron oxide. The elemental composition of pure and Fe-doped samples are evaluvated by EDX. The results of FE-SEM and HR-TEM cleary show that particles morphology have changed with respect to the incorporation of doping agent and particles are in aggregating nature. The vibrational properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles are investigated by Raman scattering technique and it exhibits that the influence of Fe-doping significantly modify the lattice vibrational characteristics in ZnO sites. The optical properties of the Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles are carried out by UV–vis absorption and PL spectra. The results of PL spectra show the near-band edge related emission as well as strong blue emissions in the Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles.  相似文献   
4.
We have synthesized an efficient Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1−x)4 (CZTSSe) absorbers by using single-step rapid thermal sulfo-selenization process of sputtered stack metallic precursor (Zn/Sn/Cu) films. The structural and morphological studies confirm that the suitability of the rapid thermal sulfo-selenization process for the synthesis of a CZTSSe absorber without any secondary phases with large grains. The annealing atmosphere with a mixed-chalcogen source enhances the grain growth of the CZTSSe absorber as compared with pure Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) absorbers. The CZTSSe thin film solar cell shows the best conversion efficiency of ∼7%.  相似文献   
5.
This paper reports on transient dynamics of electrospray driven by high step voltage and its dependence on voltage rise time. Three rise times (50 ns, 1.8 μs, and 400 μs) were used to compare influence on liquid dynamics. It was found that, when the applied voltage exceeds a certain level, minute differences in voltage rise time significantly affect jet formation time. A rise time of 50 ns accelerates the jet ejection by about 20% compared with other rise times. These results indicate that optimization of rise time may enable drastic improvement of controllability of drop-on-demand electrospray.  相似文献   
6.
《Current Applied Physics》2015,15(7):761-764
ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition method using a substrate activation process in which aluminum ions become “contaminants” that act as a nucleation center for active components within the deposition solution. The structure and morphology results demonstrate that the films have a ZnS sphalerite crystal structure with a particle size less than 15 nm, and the films consist of small homogeneous grains. The effects of the substrate activation process on the band gap energies and donor-acceptor pair luminescence process were also investigated. A green emission centered at 502 nm was produced due to donor-acceptor transitions from the aluminum acceptor to the ionized and substitution aluminum centers (Al3+).  相似文献   
7.
Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds.  相似文献   
8.
Helicenes and heterohelicenes are attractive compounds with great potential in materials sciences to be used in optoelectronics as ligand backbones in enantioselective catalysis and as chiral sensors. The properties of these materials are related to the stereodynamics of these helical chiral compounds. However, little is known about features controlling stereodynamics in helicenes; in particular, for heterohelicenes the position of the heteroatom could be relevant in this respect. Herein the complete stereodynamic characterization of monoaza[5]helicenes is shown by enantioselective dynamic HPLC and DFT calculations. At variance with previous theoretical calculations, 1‐aza[5]helicene shows a surprisingly high enantiomerization barrier, which is triggered by specific solvent interactions.  相似文献   
9.
Cyanide‐catalyzed benzoin condensation of terephthaldehyde produces a cyclic tetramer, which we propose to name cyclotetrabenzoin. Cyclotetrabenzoin is a square‐shaped macrocycle ornamented with four α‐hydroxyketone functionalities pointing away from the central cavity, the dimensions of which are 6.9×6.9 Å. In the solid state, these functional groups extensively hydrogen bond, resulting in a microporous three‐dimensional organic framework with one‐dimensional nanotube channels. This material exhibits permanent—albeit low‐porosity, with a Langmuir surface area of 52 m2 g?1. Cyclotetrabenzoin’s easy and inexpensive synthesis and purification may inspire the creation of other shape‐persistent macrocycles and porous molecular crystals by benzoin condensation.  相似文献   
10.
The effect of plasma screening on the dynamic dipole polarizability (DPP) of two‐electron ions Be2+, B3+, and C4+ has been investigated using highly correlated exponential wave functions within the framework of pseudostate summation technique and Debye screening concept. Plasma‐screening effect on the oscillator strengths (OS) of the ultraviolet and visible series has also been investigated for the systems Li+, Be2+, B3+, C4+. The DPP are reported as functions of screening parameters. The OS for S‐P transitions are also reported for various screening parameters. The OS and dynamic polarizability show interesting behavior with increasing screening strength and nuclear charge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
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