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In this study, digital image correlation (DIC) was adopted to examine the mechanical behavior of arterial tissue from bovine aorta. Rectangular sections comprised of the intimal and medial layers were excised from the descending aorta and loaded in displacement control uniaxial tension up to 40 percent elongation. Specimens of silicon rubber sheet were also prepared and served as a benchmark material in the application of DIC for the evaluation of large strains; the elastomer was loaded to 50 percent elongation. The arterial specimens exhibited a non-linear hyperelastic stress-strain response and the stiffness increased with percent elongation. Using a bilinear model to describe the uniaxial behavior, the average minor and major elastic modulii were 192±8 KPa and 912±40 KPa, respectively. Poisson's ratio of the arterial sections increased with the magnitude of axial strain; the average Poisson's ratio was 0.17±0.02. Although the correlation coefficient obtained from image correlation decreased with the percent elongation, a correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 was achieved for the tissue experiments and exceeded that obtained in the evaluation of the elastomer. Based on results from this study, DIC may serve as a valuable method for the determination of mechanical properties of arteries and other soft tissues.  相似文献
张晓川  陈金龙  赵钊  战楠 《实验力学》2013,28(6):683-691
探讨数字图像相关方法测试结果的误差分布规律对提高该方法的测试精度具有重要意义。本文从理论上分析了基于双线性位移模式数字图像相关方法的子区变形场测试误差分布规律,结果表明,当试件的真实变形可由双线性位移模式描述时,变形场最大测试误差通常出现在子区的边界或节点处。因此,若试件发生均匀拉伸等常应变变形,可利用相关系数选取一个最优子区,认为测得最优子区中心应变为试件真实应变。零变形实验验证了该测试方法的可靠性。最后对手机导光板试件在单轴拉伸载荷下的数字图像进行分析,并利用本文方法测试了其弹性常数。  相似文献
An experimental investigation of spatio-temporal characteristics of the Portevin–Le Châtelier (PLC) effect in austenitic steel with twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) is presented. Post-processing of high resolution digital images captured from specimens in quasi-static, room temperature tensile tests was conducted with a digital image correlation (DIC) method. This provided direct measurement of strain fields during all stages of the tests. Variable rate digital image capture, enabled with a custom image acquisition algorithm, guaranteed a suitable number of images recorded during serrations in load–time records. Nucleation, propagation, and morphology of individual PLC bands in both straight gage and tapered specimens were quantified with strain rate contours computed with a backward differentiation scheme. Time histories of strain evolution in the PLC band wakes were extracted from cumulative strain contours. Of the three types of PLC bands, only the continuously propagating Type A bands were observed. Band nucleation, which occurred at serration crests in flow curves derived from the DIC results, was not limited to regions of geometry-induced stress concentrations. Due to its importance in finite element springback predictions and to support theoretical model development of inelastic behavior in TWIP steel, we measured Young’s modulus variation with strain in periodic loading–unloading tests. Implications of the experimental results for theoretical modeling of the PLC effect in TWIP steel are discussed.  相似文献
An innovative technique for measuring both the shape, the displacement, the strain and the temperature fields at the surface of an object using a single stereovision sensor is proposed. The sensor is based on two off-the-shelf low-cost high-resolution uncooled CCD cameras. To allow both dimensional and thermal measurements, the sensor operates in the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral band (0.7–1.1 μm), and a radiometric and geometric calibration of the sensor is required. This technique leads to a low-cost camera-based simplified instrumentation that gives simultaneously dimensional/kinematical and thermal field measurements.  相似文献
A variety of experimental techniques have been used to advance understanding of strain localization phenomena in sands. However, all of these methods have fallen short in characterizing the evolution of the grain-scale processes that necessarily control shear band formation and growth in sands. This paper presents results of application of the non-destructive displacement measurement technique of digital image correlation (DIC) to measure two- and three-dimensional surface displacements on plane strain and axisymmetric sand specimens over short time steps. The abundance of local displacement data, high level of accuracy, and nearly continuous (spatially and temporally) record of displacement evolution afforded by the DIC technique has finally enabled a means to quantify local displacements to particulate-scale intensity. The data have been used to evaluate the local displacement mechanisms leading to the triggering of the formation of persistent shear bands, the timing of shear band formation with regard to the achievement of peak stress, and the character of displacements within fully formed shear bands. Insights are offered regarding the relation between strain localization and global stress-strain behavior, and the ensuing interpretations of shear banding as a hardening or softening phenomenon. Comparison of behavior between plane strain and triaxial tests offer additional perspective on the influences of three-dimensional stresses and boundary conditions on shear banding. The results further shed light on the micro-deformation mechanisms (i.e. buckling columns) responsible for the observed local strain non-uniformities that characterize “steady-state” shear band evolution.  相似文献
潘兵  谢惠民  李艳杰 《实验力学》2007,22(6):555-567
使用单个摄像机的二维数字图像相关方法通常仅局限于平面物体的面内变形测量,而使用两个摄像机基于双目立体视觉原理的三维数字图像相关方法克服了这一局限,可对平面和曲面物体表面的三维形貌和载荷作用下的三维变形进行测量。本文介绍了三维数字图像相关方法的基本原理及其关键技术,并用两个典型的实验验证了该方法的有效性。  相似文献
于宁宇  李群 《实验力学》2014,29(5):579-588
材料构型力学主要研究材料中的缺陷(夹杂、空穴、位错、裂纹、塑性区等)的构型(形状、尺寸和位置)改变时,所引起的系统自由能的变化。本研究将基于数字散斑相关技术,实验测量材料试件的位移场分布,随后通过材料构型力的定义式,计算求得弹塑性材料中缺陷构型力的分布。其方法概括如下:位移场通过数字图像相关技术测得;应变及位移梯度场利用三次样条拟合获得;线弹性材料应力通过简单线弹性本构方程获取,而塑性材料的表面应力场通过Ramberg-Osgood本构方程计算求得;弹塑性应变能密度分布则由应力-应变曲线数值积分获得。该方法对普通弹性材料或者弹塑性材料均适用,可以用于各种不同的缺陷及缺陷群的材料构型力测量。  相似文献
作为防弹玻璃夹层材料,PU的动态力学性能一直受到学者们的关注。为准确表征其动态力学性能,本文采用ABAQUS有限元软件对不同摩擦系数下的单轴压缩试验进行数值仿真,分析试样加载端面的摩擦效应和几何尺寸对单轴压缩试验结果的影响;结合高速摄影技术(HSP)与数字图像相关技术(DIC)观测到试样在拉伸试验中的动态变形场和应变场,探讨标距段的应力均衡性;同时对PU材料在不同应变率下的单轴压缩、拉伸力学性能进行测试。结果表明:压缩试样的端面摩擦效应限制横向变形,影响了试样内部的受力分布,使得测量得到的应力值偏大;试样长径比越小,端面摩擦效应的影响越大;在单轴动态拉伸试验中,板状拉伸试样的标距段选取应当考虑两端倒角尺寸。通过测试PU的拉、压力学性能,发现材料具有显著的应变率敏感性。  相似文献
本文利用三维数字图像相关(3D-DIC)测试技术,在Hopkinson bar加载条件下测试铝合金动态拉伸力学性能以及TC4合金Ⅱ型裂纹的起裂时间和冲击载荷下的失稳扩展速度。两台高速相机保证了被测物体的三维成像,校准板技术使得所测试的应变-时间历程定量化。利用数据处理软件能够得到关注区内每一点的位移-时间历程、应变-时间历程及主应变等。同时,针对TC4材料的动态断裂过程,三维数字图像相关技术能够实时地记录预制疲劳裂纹的张开、裂纹尖端起裂、裂纹分叉扩展、失稳传播等各个阶段,为动态断裂韧性的确定提供了有力工具。  相似文献
There is an increase in the mineral content of human dentin with aging.Due to the consequent changes in the mineral to the collagen ratio,this process may influence the degree of hydrogen bonding that occurs with the loss of water and the extent of shrinkage as a result of dehydration.Thus,the objective of this investigation is to quantify the differences in the dehydration shrinkage of human dentin with patient age.Specimens of coronal dentin are prepared from the molars of young(23 age 34) and old(52 age 62) patients,and then maintained in storage solutions of water or hanks balanced salt solutions(HBSS).Dimensional changes of the dentin specimens occurring over periods of free convection are evaluated by using the microscopic digital image correlation(DIC).The results distinguish that the shrinkage of the young dentin is significantly larger than that of the old dentin,regardless of the orientation and period of the storage.The strains parallel to the tubules increase with proximity to the dentin enamel junction(DEJ),whereas the shrinkage strains in the transverse direction are the largest in the deep dentin(i.e.,near the pulp).The degree of anisotropy in the shrinkage increases from the pulp to the DEJ,and is the largest in the young dentin.  相似文献
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