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We present freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM), dielectric spectroscopy and electro-optic measurements on a dimeric liquid crystal mixture, which previously was proposed to form the twist-bend nematic (Ntb) phase. Our FF-TEM studies provide a direct image of a 10.5 nm periodic structure, consistent with the expected nanoscale, heliconical twist-bend modulation of the molecular orientation. Dielectric measurements in the 100 Hz to 10 MHz range reveal three nearly Debye-type dispersion processes in the nematic and the twist-bend phase. Low frequency 8 V/µm electric fields applied on planar cells cause the optical-scale stripe texture (another characteristic feature of the Ntb phase) to disappear. Higher (>16 V/µm) fields gradually realign the heliconical axis along the electric field; it relaxes back after the field removal.  相似文献   
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The Merck nematic mixture E49 exhibits a large nematic interval (0–100 °C) and a large dielectric anisotropy. Both of these features make E49 interesting for applications and basic physics. Unfortunately, no systematic measurements of the material constants of this mixture and their temperature dependence have been reported in the literature. In this paper we report experimental measurements of the splay and bend elastic constants (K 11 and K 33) of the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices (n ort and n par) at the wavelength λ?=?632.8 nm and of the two elastic constants parallel and orthogonal to the director (εpar and εort) at the frequency ν?=?5?kHz. The temperature dependence of all of these parameters is found in the temperature range 25–99 °C. The measurements of the elastic constants are performed using both a dielectric and an optical method simultaneously on the same nematic sample. The results obtained using the two methods are in a satisfactory agreement between them within the estimated experimental uncertainty. The ordinary and the extraordinary indices are measured using the prism method.  相似文献   
6.
Two fluorinated aromatic bis(o‐aminophenol)s, 1,1‐bis(3′‐amino‐4′‐hydroxyphenyl)‐1‐(3′‐trifluoromethylphenyl)‐2,2,2‐trifluoroethane (6FAP) and 1,1‐bis(3′‐amino‐4′‐hydroxyphenyl)‐1‐(3′,5′‐ditrifluoromethylphenyl)‐2,2,2‐trifluoroethane (9FAP) were synthesized, which were allowed to polycondense with aromatic diacyl chlorides to afford the fluorinated aromatic polybenzoxazoles (PBOs) via a conventional two‐step procedure in which the low‐temperature solution polycondensation process was first performed to yield poly(o‐hydroxyamide)s (PHAs) followed by the thermal cyclodehydration to give the PBOs. Experimental results indicated that the PHAs had inherent viscosities in the range of 0.29–0.68 dL/g, showing excellent solubility in organic solvents. The PHAs could be thermally cyclodehydrated into the corresponding PBOs at 260–370 °C. The obtained PBOs exhibited enhanced glass‐transition temperature but decreased solubility with respect to the PHAs. The PBOs showed glass‐transition temperatures in the range of 315–337 °C and excellent thermal stabilities with 5% original weight‐loss temperatures (T5) of >513 °C. Additionally, the PBO films had average refractive index of 1.5298–1.5656, birefringence of 0.0051–0.0092, and low dielectric constants of 2.57–2.70. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2010  相似文献   
7.
Starch belongs to the polyglucan group. This type of polysaccharide shows a broad β-relaxation process in dielectric spectra at low temperatures, which has its molecular origin in orientational motions of sugar rings via glucosidic linkages. This chain dynamic was investigated for α(1,4)-linked starch oligomers with well-defined chain lengths of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 anhydroglucose units (AGUs) and for α(1,4)-polyglucans with average degrees of polymerization of 5, 10, 56, 70, and so forth (up to 3000; calculated from the mean molecular weight). The activation energy (Ea) of the segmental chain motion was lowest for dimeric maltose (Ea = 49.4 ± 1.3 kJ/mol), and this was followed by passage through a maximum at a degree of polymerization of 6 (Ea = 60.8 ± 1.8 kJ/mol). Subsequently, Ea leveled off at a value of about 52 ± 1.5 kJ/mol for chains containing more than 100 repeating units. The results were compared with the values of cellulose-like oligomers and polymers bearing a β(1,4)-linkage. Interestingly, the shape of the Ea dependency on the chain length of the molecules was qualitatively the same for both systems, whereas quantitatively the starch-like substances generally showed higher Ea values. Additionally, and for comparison, three cyclodextrins were measured by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The ringlike molecules, with 6, 7, and 8 α(1,4)-linked AGUs, showed moderately different types of dielectric spectra. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 42: 188–197, 2004  相似文献   
8.
ABSTRACT

The structures of the liquid crystal (LC) molecules have a key role in impacting the electro-optical performance of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) film. In this paper, the relationship between the LC molecular structures and the electro-optical properties of PDLC films is investigated based on an unexplored cyano-terminated tolane compounds (CTTCs) doped E8 LCs/UV polymers system. Due to the high polarity of CTTCs, LCs doped with the cyano-terminated tolane (CTT) molecules exhibit high birefringence and large positive dielectric anisotropy. On the whole, PDLC films doped with the CTT molecules exhibit a lower driving voltage than that doped with the pure E8. More excitingly, PDLC films based on CTT molecules with larger length-to-width ratio and longer conjugated system show higher contrast ratio (CR) and faster response time. Eventually, the mechanism of the effects of CTT-based molecular structures and the relationship between the electro-optical performance of PDLC films and CTT molecules are illustrated. This work paves a new way for optimising the electro-optical properties of PDLC films.  相似文献   
9.
Es werden verschiedene Festkörperspurdetektor-Materialien hinsichtlich ihrer Empfindlichkeit gegenüber Bestrahlung mit α-Teilchen und zum Teil auch gegenüber Protonen und Deuteronen verglichen. Die speziell für den Einsutz als Festkörperspurdetektor hergestellten Zellulosenitrat-Folien wurden als empfindlichste Detektoren ermittelt.  相似文献   
10.
The alpha particle response which is characteristic of polycarbonate detectors CR-39 has been investigated. The track diameter as a function of alpha energy in the range from 5.1–22.2 MeV was examined. The mean track diameter or size of the tracks are found to be energy dependent which decreases as alpha energy increases with a trend at about 14 MeV alpha energy. With regard to the spectroscopy of alpha from track radii, it was stated that the discrimination of lower alpha energies shows better results than the high energies for the present etching condition.

Es wurde die charakteristische Wirkung von Alpha-Teilchen auf die Polycarbonatdetektoren CR-39 untersucht. Der Spurendurchmesser als Funktion der Alpha-Energie wurde im Energiebereich 5,1… 22,2 MeV verfolgt. Der mittlere Spurendurchmesser oder die Spurengroβe waren energieabhängig und nahmen mit zunehmender Alpha-Energie bei einem Trend von ungefähr 14 Me V ab. In being auf die Spektroskopie von Alpha-Teilchen von den Spurenradien wurde festgestellt, daβeine Unterscheidung von niederen Alpha-Energien bessere Ergebnisse brachte als solche bei hohen Energien für die vorliegende Ätzbedingung.  相似文献   
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