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Three different experimental measurements, namely, rheology, particle sizing, and x-ray diffraction (XRD), were used to study the effect of anionic additives on the properties of bentonite suspensions. The three additives were sodium carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Flow curves were obtained from shear stress–shear rate measurements, and the viscoelastic properties were determined from oscillatory and transient measurements. Mineralogical data were evaluated by XRD and the particle size analysis performed by light scattering technique. The presence of the surfactant modifies the face-to-face interactions and yields changes of the mixtures rheological behavior at low deformation rates. Polymers act by coating each clay particle and prevent their agglomeration. Therefore, the additives are responsible for the mechanisms of destructuration and structure reorganization as well as the mixtures viscous and viscoelastic behavior.  相似文献
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A general thermomechanical model is derived for a mixture. The model describes the behavior of the mixture via proper choices of free energy and dissipation function. A model for any combination of the mixture constituents can be reduced from the general model. The theory is applied to a thermohydraulic model for a mixture of compacted bentonite, liquid water, vapor, and air with the assumption of rigid skeleton and constant uniform porosity. The free energy of the system is chosen to take into account the individual nondissipative behaviors of the constituents and their mutual interactions, namely, adsorption and mixing of the gaseous constituents. The choices for the interaction terms are based on the equilibrium conditions for the water species in different combinations of the constituents. The resulting thermodynamically consistent macroscopic model is fitted to a suction experiment and applied to a simple one-dimensional thermohydraulic simulation of the bentonite buffer of the Febex in situ test. The results calculated with finite element method are successfully compared to measurements.  相似文献
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Soilbentonite slurry walls are designed to inhibit the subsurface movement of contaminants from hazardous waste sites. Although it is generally accepted that high concentrations of organic compounds will adversely affect soilbentonite slurry walls and clay liners, previous research investigating the effects of NAPLs on the conductivity of clay wall materials has been inconclusive. In this study the effects of various organics (benzene, aniline, trichloroethylene, ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride) on the effective conductivity of a typical soilbentonite slurry wall material were studied under two effective stress conditions, 200 and 52kPa. The hydraulic conductivity for the soilbentonite material permeated with water averaged 1.52×10-8cms-1. Compared to water, there was little change in conductivity when the sample was permeated with a solution containing a NAPL compound at its solubility limit, except for aniline. However, there was a one to two order of magnitude decrease in conductivity when the sample was permeated with a pure NAPL for all NAPLs tested. When the soilbentonite material was permeated with a water/NAPL/water/NAPL sequence, the conductivity decreased one to two orders of magnitude when a NAPL was introduced following water; however, when water was reintroduced after the NAPL, the conductivity increased to the initial hydraulic conductivity. The conductivity again decreased one to two orders of magnitude when the NAPL was reintroduced. This trend occurred for all NAPLs tested, and the fluid properties of the NAPL compounds alone did not account for the decrease in conductivity compared to water.  相似文献
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膨润土因具有渗透性低、阳离子交换能力高等优点被认为是最适合高放废物深地质处置库中屏障系统的缓冲材料,工程实践发现随着水化过程的进行,纯高压实膨润土强度不断降低,并最终影响到工程屏障系统功能的发挥。针对这一问题,在膨润土中加入一定比例的石英砂,可以有效地提高工程屏障的热传导特性、压实性、力学强度和长期稳定性,降低工程造价。本文研究了影响砂 膨润土混合物渗透性的主要因素,包括膨润土含量、粒径分布、含水量和干密度、压实方法以及膨润土类型等。结果表明,砂土混合物渗透性主要受膨润土的渗透性控制,渗透系数随着膨润土含量和干密度的增加而减小,当膨润土含量超过某一界限值后,继续增加膨润土含量对降低渗透系数的作用有限; 细颗粒和级配良好的混合物渗透系数小,当土体内部发生渗透侵蚀将增大渗透系数; 最优含水量条件下压实得到的渗透系数最低,高于最优含水量压实得到的渗透系数比低于最优含水量压实得到的渗透系数要小。  相似文献
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